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Wątek: NATURALNE sposoby optymalizacji CIAŁA i DUSZY.

  1. #766
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
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    1 524
    coś w temacie metabolicznych matek Polaków - nazywa się Helena (ktoś składał życzenia ?)
    Okazuje się, że obszarem jest Hiszpania czyli najbardziej nasłonecznione miejsce europy


    Zdecydowana większość Polaków pochodzi od siedmiu "pramatek Europy"



    Niemal połowa Polaków wywodzi się z żeńskiej linii genetycznej Helena, nazwanej tak od imienia jednej z "pramatek Europy". Linia ta występuje najczęściej w Europie Zachodniej, a szczególnie w Hiszpanii i w Portugalii.

    Najnowsze badania Pracowni Biobank Katedry Biofizyki Molekularnej Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego wykazały, że populacja polska, podobnie jak europejska, pochodzi od siedmiu głównych żeńskich linii genetycznych (haplogrup). W książce prof. Bryana Sykes’a linie te zostały umownie określone jako "pramatki Europy": Urszula, Xenia, Helena, Katarzyna, Tara, Velda oraz Jaśmina.

    Poziom zróżnicowania populacji polskiej jest niski i jest ona dosyć jednorodna pod względem genetycznym. Najwięcej Polaków – ok. 43 proc. - wywodzi się z linii genetycznej zwanej Heleną - wynika z badania łódzkich naukowców, którzy wyniki swojej pracy opublikowali w prestiżowym czasopiśmie „European Journal of Human Genetics”.

    Badania Pracowni Biobank UŁ dotyczyły określenia różnorodności mitochondrialnego DNA, czyli dziedziczonego po linii żeńskiej w populacji polskiej. Ich celem było określenie udziałów poszczególnych linii genetycznych mtDNA w populacji, a także zobrazowanie genetycznych powiązań między Polakami.

    Dr Justyna Jarczak z Pracowni Biobank UŁ przypomina, że w DNA zapisana jest informacja nie tylko o tym jak wyglądamy i jak funkcjonuje nasz organizm, ale też o naszych przodkach. Możemy dowiedzieć się, z jakiej linii genetycznej, a w uproszczeniu, jakiej grupy pierwszych mieszkańców Europy się wywodzimy.

    „Warto podkreślić, że za pomocą mitochondrialnego DNA możemy określić żeńską linię genetyczną, ponieważ ten rodzaj DNA jest przekazywany prawie wyłącznie przez kobiety. Co więcej, zmiany zachodzą w nim bardzo rzadko a więc możemy cofnąć się w czasie o wiele pokoleń, do czasów bardzo odległych” – dodaje dr Jarczak.

    Badania łódzkich naukowców po raz pierwszy zostały przeprowadzone na tak licznej grupie osób (5852) reprezentujących wszystkie województwa i zdecydowaną większość powiatów. Dodatkowo zastosowano podział na tak zwane klastry, które mniej lub bardziej odpowiadały regionom geograficznym czy regionom etnograficznym. To pozwoliło nałożyć wyniki różnic genetycznych na tło historyczne i kulturowe.

    Wiadomo, że 95 proc. dzisiejszych Europejczyków pochodzi z siedmiu żeńskich linii genetycznych.

    Z badań łódzkiego Biobanku wynika, że najwięcej Polaków – ok. 43 proc. - wywodzi się z linii genetycznej H (Helena). Występuje ona najczęściej w Europie Zachodniej, a najwyższe frekwencje tej haplogrupy są obserwowane w Hiszpanii i Portugalii. Z kolei na północnych krańcach Europy, wśród Lapończyków, występuje ona z bardzo niską częstością - od 0 do 7 proc. „Uważa się, że pierwsze grupy ludzi należące do tej linii genetycznej pojawiły się w Europie ok. 20 tys. lat temu na terenach południowej Francji” - dodała badaczka.

    Inne dość częste linie genetyczne w Polsce to U (Urszula) - ok. 20 proc. oraz J (Jaśmina) - ok. 10 proc.

    Haplogrupa U jest najstarszą linią genetyczną mtDNA zidentyfikowaną na terenie Europy. Jej pierwsze ślady pochodzą sprzed 45 tys. lat z terenów dzisiejszej Grecji. Haplogrupa J natomiast pojawiła się w Europie stosunkowo niedawno - ok. 8 tys. lat temu. „Najwyższe częstości występowania obserwowane są na Bliskim Wschodzie i na Bałkanach i tam prawdopodobnie pojawiła się na naszym kontynencie po raz pierwszy” - wyjaśniła dr Jarczak.

    Pozostałe linie genetyczne występują już rzadziej: T (Tara) – 9 proc., HV – 4,5 proc. (jedna z haplogrup, występująca m.in. w Europie i na Bliskim Wschodzie), K (Katarzyna) – 4 proc.; W – 2,4 proc., I - ok. 2 proc. oraz V (Velda) – 1 proc.

    W polskiej populacji zdarzają się też haplogrupy rzadkie wskazujące na udział linii genetycznych pochodzenia innego niż europejskie. Są to haplogrupy pochodzenia azjatyckiego (C, D, R, A, G, Z, B, F) oraz afrykańskiego (N, L, M). Jednak ich frekwencja w populacji jest bardzo niska i nie przekracza 1 proc.

    Po raz pierwszy naukowcy przedstawili także rozkład haplogrup mtDNA z podziałem na regiony Polski. Wyniki badań wskazują, że poziom zróżnicowania w obrębie populacji polskiej jest niski, a sama populacja polska dosyć jednorodna pod względem genetycznym.

    Zaobserwowano jednak, że mieszkańcy niektórych regionów geograficznych naszego kraju wykazują pewne zróżnicowanie genetyczne. Zwłaszcza województwo łódzkie i świętokrzyskie różnią się od średniej populacji polskiej.

    „Zróżnicowanie to można wyjaśnić historią procesów demograficznych w Polsce, takich jak przesiedlenia i migracje ludności lub relatywnie słabsza urbanizacja i wyższy wskaźnik zatrzymania ludności wiejskiej w niektórych regionach” - dodała dr Jarczak.

    Pracownia Biobank Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego prowadzi badania naukowe z zakresu genetyki człowieka z wykorzystaniem metod biologii molekularnej. Posiada kolekcję próbek DNA pozyskanych od prawie 10 tys. ochotników z całej Polski. Połączenie najnowocześniejszych technik molekularnych z możliwością wykorzystania próbek z danej populacji pozwala na prowadzenie badań z zakresu genetyki populacyjnej.

    „Za pomocą badań populacyjnych możemy na przykład oceniać stan zdrowia ludzi z danego terenu, możemy sprawdzać wpływ różnych czynników na występowanie chorób, a tym samym wpływać na rozwój profilaktyki i leczenia chorób cywilizacyjnych” - wyjaśnił dr Dominik Strapagiel, kierownik Pracowni Biobank.

    Badania populacyjne umożliwiają także prześledzenie historii danej populacji. „Dzięki wynikom takich badań możemy poznać jej strukturę genetyczną czy też pokusić się o wskazanie ważnych momentów w istnieniu danej populacji, które znajdują odzwierciedlenie w genach” - podsumował dr Strapagiel.
    Sleeping in Doesn’t Mitigate Metabolic Changes Linked to Sleep Deficit



    One of the first studies to suggest that insufficient sleep can disrupt metabolism came out 2 decades ago. And yet, despite growing evidence that inadequate slumber is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes, approximately a third of US adults sleep fewer than the 7 hours a night recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society. Many people think they can repay sleep debt incurred during the week by catching extra z’s on the weekend. But, unfortunately, it’s not that easy to mitigate the metabolic dysregulation associated with recurrent insufficient sleep, suggests a recent study in Current Biology.

    Sleepless in the Sleep Lab

    The researchers brought 36 healthy normal-weight adults, aged 18 to 39 years, into their sleep lab and randomly assigned them to 1 of 3 groups:

    Sufficient sleep (control group), consisting of up to 9 hours of sleep per night for 9 nights.

    Sleep restriction without weekend recovery sleep, consisting of up to 5 hours of sleep per night for 9 nights.

    Sleep restriction with weekend recovery sleep, consisting of up to 5 hours of sleep per weeknight, unrestricted sleep on the weekend, followed by another 2 weeknights of sleep restriction.

    Prior to randomization, baseline sleep was assessed in the lab over 3 nights; participants slept on average about 8 hours each night. Over the next 9 days, beginning on a Monday, participants slept restricted or sufficient hours, depending on their group assignment, and the scientists assessed their eating patterns, weight gain, and changes in insulin sensitivity.

    Those assigned to sleep restriction with weekend sleep recovery slept a total of only 3 extra hours Friday and Saturday night, even though they had missed out on more than 12 hours of sleep the previous 5 nights. On top of that, sleeping in on the weekend disrupted their circadian clock, making it difficult for them to fall asleep Sunday night, even though they had to awake early Monday morning.

    Late-Night Munchies

    Sleep restriction was associated with rapid diet and metabolic changes:

    Insulin sensitivity declined within only 3 days of sleep restriction.

    The decline in insulin sensitivity was more pronounced among participants allowed weekend recovery sleep. By the end of the study, insulin sensitivity decreased about 13% among those not allowed recovery sleep but fell as much as 27% among those allowed weekend recovery sleep.

    Participants not allowed weekend recovery sleep consumed an excess of around 500 calories each night after dinner compared with baseline calorie intake.

    Participants allowed weekend recovery sleep consumed as much as 641 calories more after dinner on weeknights relative to baseline, but their after-dinner calorie consumption on the weekend was not significantly different from that at baseline.

    On average, participants in the sleep restricted groups each gained 3 pounds by the end of the study.

    “When we don’t get enough sleep, we also are expending more energy,” said coauthor Kenneth Wright Jr, PhD, director of the Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory at the University of Colorado. “That’s a signal for us to eat more. The problem is we don’t have to forage for food. We can go right to the kitchen.” In an earlier study, Wright found that insufficient sleep increased total daily energy expenditure by around 5%, but energy intake, especially at night after dinner, more than made up for that.

    Questions Without Answers

    The study does not answer a couple of big questions: Could sleeping in on the weekend make up for only a night or 2 of sleep loss during the week? And might the metabolic changes be even worse in people who aren’t young or healthy?

    “These were super-healthy people,” Wright said. “That’s what makes this even scarier.”

    Research is needed into the effects of sleep restriction and weekend makeup sleep on other populations, he said.

    Wright said he and his coauthors were surprised to see that in the weeknight sleep-restricted group, men slept more on the weekend than women. While both men and women slept longer on Friday night than they had at baseline, only men did on Saturday night. “What we do know as a general rule is that women are at a higher risk for insomnia than men,” he said.
    https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jam...rticle/2734052

    Cellular circadian period length inversely correlates with HbA1c levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes




    Aims/hypothesis
    The circadian system plays an essential role in regulating the timing of human metabolism. Indeed, circadian misalignment is strongly associated with high rates of metabolic disorders. The properties of the circadian oscillator can be measured in cells cultured in vitro and these cellular rhythms are highly informative of the physiological circadian rhythm in vivo. We aimed to discover whether molecular properties of the circadian oscillator are altered as a result of type 2 diabetes.

    Methods
    We assessed molecular clock properties in dermal fibroblasts established from skin biopsies taken from nine obese and eight non-obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and 11 non-diabetic control individuals. Following in vitro synchronisation, primary fibroblast cultures were subjected to continuous assessment of circadian bioluminescence profiles based on lentiviral luciferase reporters.

    Results
    We observed a significant inverse correlation (ρ = −0.592; p < 0.05) between HbA1c values and circadian period length within cells from the type 2 diabetes group. RNA sequencing analysis conducted on samples from this group revealed that ICAM1, encoding the endothelial adhesion protein, was differentially expressed in fibroblasts from individuals with poorly controlled vs well-controlled type 2 diabetes and its levels correlated with cellular period length. Consistent with this circadian link, the ICAM1 gene also displayed rhythmic binding of the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) protein that correlated with gene expression.

    Conclusions/interpretation
    We provide for the first time a potential molecular link between glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes and circadian clock machinery. This paves the way for further mechanistic understanding of circadian oscillator changes upon type 2 diabetes development in humans.
    https://link.springer.com/article/10...125-019-4907-0

    Use of “Lights” for Bipolar Depression

    Purpose
    In this review, we will review the background and diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD); describe the efficacy data and potential circadian and neural mechanisms underlying the effects of bright light for bipolar depression; and discuss the implementation of light therapy in clinical practice.

    Recent Findings
    To date, morning bright light is the most widely tested form of light therapy for all mood disorders. Clinical trial reports suggest that midday or morning bright light treatment and novel chronotherapeutic interventions are effective for bipolar depression. Mechanisms of response may relate to effects on the circadian system and other changes in neural functioning.

    Summary
    Using bright light to manage depressive symptoms in BD is reasonable but also requires concurrent antimanic treatment and careful clinical monitoring for response, safety, and mood polarity switch.
    https://link.springer.com/article/10...920-019-1025-0

    Cytat Zamieszczone przez htw Zobacz posta
    9 May 2019

    06 May 2019
    The possible global hazard of cell phone radiation on thyroid cells and hormones: a systematic review of evidences



    https://link.springer.com/article/10...56-019-05096-z
    został przedstawiony hipotetyczny mechanizm:



    Exposure may negatively influence the iodine uptake in the thyroid gland or increases temperature effect on the thyroid gland
    żeby zrozumieć słowo klucz polecam bardzo eleganckie wyjaśnienie tematu:



    wiadomo że dzieci są zagrożone najbardziej.

    Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Mortality Trends in the United States, 1973-2013

    Results
    Among 1806 patients included in the analysis, 1454 (80.5%) were female and 1503 (83.2%) were white; most patients were aged 15 to 19 years. The overall incidence rates of thyroid cancer increased annually from 0.48 per 100 000 person-years in 1973 to 1.14 per 100 000 person-years in 2013. Incidence rates gradually increased from 1973 to 2006 (APC, 1.11%; 95% CI, 0.56%-1.67%) and then markedly increased from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 9.56%; 95% CI, 5.09%-14.22%). The incidence rates of large tumors (>20 mm) gradually increased from 1983 to 2006 (APC, 2.23%; 95% CI, 0.93%-3.54%) and then markedly increased from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 8.84%; 95% CI, 3.20%-14.79%); these rates were not significantly different from incidence rates of small (1-20 mm) tumors. The incidence rates of regionally extended thyroid cancer gradually increased from 1973 to 2006 (APC, 1.44%; 95% CI, 0.68%-2.21%) and then markedly increased from 2006 to 2013 (APC, 11.16%; 95% CI, 5.26%-17.40%); these rates were not significantly different from the incidence rates of localized disease.

    Conclusions and Relevance
    The incidence rates of pediatric thyroid cancer increased more rapidly from 2006 to 2013 than from 1973 to 2006. The findings suggest that there may be a co-occurring increase in thyroid cancer in the pediatric population in addition to enhanced detection.
    https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jam...stract/2734347
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  2. #767
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 524
    Firma DELL obawia się świstała, które emitują ich ekrany oraz pracuje nad rozwiązaniem:

    Blue light can damage the retina and disturb natural sleep rhythms, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) said in a statement, according to a report* from France24.
    https://www.forbes.com/sites/brookec.../#5f22b9a734d4

    a słowo ciałem się stało
    Poranna jasność bezpośrednio uwrażliwia Twoje POTĘŻNE MIĘŚNIE
    odkryli
    light-SF1-neuron-skeletal-muscle axis
    , może w końcu poranna jasność nabierze większego sensu(?).

    MAY 21, 2019
    Light Entrains Diurnal Changes in Insulin Sensitivity of Skeletal Muscle via Ventromedial Hypothalamic Neurons



    Loss of synchrony between geophysical time and insulin action predisposes to metabolic diseases. Yet the brain and peripheral pathways linking proper insulin effect to diurnal changes in light-dark and feeding-fasting inputs are poorly understood. Here, we show that the insulin sensitivity of several metabolically relevant tissues fluctuates during the 24 h period. For example, in mice, the insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue is lowest during the light period. Mechanistically, by performing loss- and gain-of-light-action and food-restriction experiments, we demonstrate that SIRT1 in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) convey photic inputs to entrain the biochemical and metabolic action of insulin in skeletal muscle. These findings uncover a critical light-SF1-neuron-skeletal-muscle axis that acts to finely tune diurnal changes in insulin sensitivity and reveal a light regulatory mechanism of skeletal muscle function.
    Highlights
    •Response to insulin of metabolically relevant tissues varies in a diurnal fashion
    •SF1 neurons govern diurnal variation in responsiveness to insulin in skeletal muscle
    •Light inputs entrain diurnal variation in responsiveness to insulin in skeletal muscle
    •Photic gain- or loss-of-function causes insulin resistance in skeletal muscle
    https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fu...247(19)30573-X


    oczywiście było,ale przypominam:

    Demonstration of a day-night rhythm in human skeletal muscle oxidative capacity



    Highlights

    •Mitochondrial oxidative capacity in human skeletal muscle follows a day-night rhythm.

    •Oxidative capacity peaks in the late evening and is lowest in the early afternoon.

    •Energy expenditure follows a day-night rhythm and is highest in the late evening.

    •Human muscle exhibits rhythmic gene expression, with a cycling core molecular clock.
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...ia%3Dihub#fig3

    Sleep Duration Is Associated With Testis Size in Healthy Young Men.

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep is increasingly recognized to influence a growing array of physiological processes. The relationship between sleep duration and testis size, a marker of male reproductive potential, has not been studied.

    METHODS: This was a preliminary cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from 92 healthy men (mean ± standard deviation, age 33 ± 6 years, body mass index [BMI] 24.7 ± 6.1 kg/m2), of whom 66 underwent at-home actigraphy and 47 underwent in-laboratory polysomnography. Sleep duration and architecture were measured by actigraphy and polysomnography, testicular volume by Prader orchidometer, total testosterone by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, free testosterone by equilibrium dialysis, and luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by immunochemiluminometric assay.

    RESULTS: Sleep duration was correlated with testicular volume (r = .31, P = .046) and with FSH (r = -.30, P = .035), and rapid eye movement sleep was correlated with FSH (r = .44, P = .006). The significance of these findings did not change after adjustment for age and BMI, and were confirmed nonparametrically by resampling. A putative inverse U-shaped relationship between testicular volume and sleep duration was observed by polynomial regression (P = .049), but not with resampling (P = .068).

    CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive linear and a possible inverse U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and testis volume. Longitudinal or interventional studies manipulating sleep are required to better define causality, and ultimately to establish how much sleep is needed to maximize male reproductive potential.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubme...1ZwlKYOcEWmgF4

    Randomized Study of the Effect of Vitamin D and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Cosupplementation as Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Inflammation and Nutritional Status in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Abstract
    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids cosupplementation on inflammation and nutritional status in colorectal cancer patients. In this clinical trial, 81 colorectal cancer patients were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) control group: receiving a vitamin D3 placebo weekly + omega-3 fatty acid placebo capsules daily; (2) omega-3 fatty acid group: receiving 2 omega-3 fatty acid capsules (each capsule containing 330 mg of omega-3 fatty acids) daily + a vitamin D3 placebo weekly; (3) vitamin D group: receiving a 50,000 IU vitamin D3 soft gel weekly + 2 omega-3 fatty acid placebo capsules daily; (4) cosupplementation group: receiving a 50,000 IU vitamin D3 soft gel weekly + 2 omega-3 fatty acids capsules daily for 8 weeks. Before and after the intervention, height, weight, fat-free mass (FFM), serum levels of 25(OH)D, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and albumin, were measured. After 8 weeks of intervention, patients who received combined vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids supplements compared with omega-3, vitamin D3, and placebo groups had significantly decreased CRP and TNF-α. In addition, serum level of IL-6 was decreased significantly in omega-3, vitamin D3, and cosupplementation groups compared with baseline. Regarding nutritional status, weight, BMI, and FFM% were increased significantly in vitamin D3, omega-3, and cosupplementation groups at the end of the intervention. Vitamin D3 plus omega-3 fatty acids cosupplementation in colorectal cancer patients has beneficial impacts on inflammation and nutritional status.
    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/...nalCode=ijds20

    Heart Rate Variability in Sport Performance: Do Time of Day and Chronotype Play A Role?

    Abstract: A reliable non-invasive method to assess autonomic nervous system activity involves the evaluation of the time course of heart rate variability (HRV). HRV may vary in accordance with the degree and duration of training, and the circadian fluctuation of this variable is crucial for human health since the heart adapts to the needs of different activity levels during sleep phases or in the daytime. In the present review, time-of-day and chronotype effect on HRV in response to acute sessions of physical activity are discussed. Results are sparse and controversial; however, it seems that evening-type subjects have a higher perturbation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with slowed vagal reactivation and higher heart rate values in response to morning exercise than morning types. Conversely, both chronotype categories showed similar ANS activity during evening physical tasks, suggesting that this time of day seems to perturb the HRV circadian rhythm to a lesser extent. The control for chronotype and time-of-day effect represents a key strategy for individual training schedules, and, in perspective, for primary injury prevention.

    Conclusions
    Based on the present data, we can conclude that acute physical activity causes a perturbation in the HRV circadian pattern, and consequently, this variable could be influenced by both chronotype and time of the day. Future studies should strongly consider strict protocols such as free running, forced desynchronization, modified sleep times, or constant routine protocols since many confounders could significantly influence sports performances and the circadian rhythms of many biological variables related to exercise.
    https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/8/5/723/htm

    ciekawe:

    The blood–brain barrier as an endocrine tissue
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-019-0213-7

    dobrym testem bariery krew - mózg jest test GABA.



    WHO recognises 'burn-out' as medical condition

    The World Health Organization has for the first time recognised "burn-out" in its International Classification of Diseases (ICD), which is widely used as a benchmark for diagnosis and health insurers.

    The decision, reached during the World Health Assembly in Geneva, which wraps up on Tuesday, could help put to rest decades of debate among experts over how to define burnout, and whether it should be considered a medical condition.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...condition.html
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 28-05-19 o 12:12
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  3. #768
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
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    1 524
    czy ktoś jeszcze liczy kalorie ?



    MAY 30, 2019
    Circadian clock and fat metabolism linked through newly discovered mechanism



    The enzyme Nocturnin, which governs daily tasks such as fat metabolism and energy usage, works in an entirely different way than previously thought, reported a team of researchers at Princeton University. The newly discovered mechanism reveals the molecular link between the enzyme's daily fluctuations and its energy-regulating role in the body, according to a study published this week in Nature Communications.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...sm-linked.html


    MAY 30, 2019
    Defining the Independence of the Liver Circadian Clock



    Highlights
    •The liver clock oscillates in the absence of all other clocks in vivo
    •Only ∼20% of hepatic rhythms are autonomous despite recruitment of BMAL1 to chromatin
    •The liver clock is sufficient for oscillation of glycogen and NAD + salvage metabolism
    •These autonomous oscillations depend on the light-dark cycle
    Mammals rely on a network of circadian clocks to control daily systemic metabolism and physiology. The central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is considered hierarchically dominant over peripheral clocks, whose degree of independence, or tissue-level autonomy, has never been ascertained in vivo. Using arrhythmic Bmal1-null mice, we generated animals with reconstituted circadian expression of BMAL1 exclusively in the liver (Liver-RE). High-throughput transcriptomics and metabolomics show that the liver has independent circadian functions specific for metabolic processes such as the NAD + salvage pathway and glycogen turnover. However, although BMAL1 occupies chromatin at most genomic targets in Liver-RE mice, circadian expression is restricted to ∼10% of normally rhythmic transcripts. Finally, rhythmic clock gene expression is lost in Liver-RE mice under constant darkness. Hence, full circadian function in the liver depends on signals emanating from other clocks, and light contributes to tissue-autonomous clock function.
    https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S...1#.XO_2q6-_6gI
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  4. #769
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
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    1 524
    receptory zachodu słońca to spawa bardzo indywidualna, osoby z porcelanowym podwórzem radzę zachować ostrożność.





    "niewizyjny" receptor niebieskiego potrafi "widzieć"




    Circadian clock regulation of the glycogen synthase (gsn) gene by WCC is critical for rhythmic glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa


    Circadian clocks generate rhythms in cellular functions, including metabolism, to align biological processes with the 24-hour environment. Disruption of this alignment by shift work alters glucose homeostasis. Glucose homeostasis depends on signaling and allosteric control; however, the molecular mechanisms linking the clock to glucose homeostasis remain largely unknown. We investigated the molecular links between the clock and glycogen metabolism, a conserved glucose homeostatic process, in Neurospora crassa. We find that glycogen synthase (gsn) mRNA, glycogen phosphorylase (gpn) mRNA, and glycogen levels, accumulate with a daily rhythm controlled by the circadian clock. Because the synthase and phosphorylase are critical to homeostasis, their roles in generating glycogen rhythms were investigated. We demonstrate that while gsn was necessary for glycogen production, constitutive gsn expression resulted in high and arrhythmic glycogen levels, and deletion of gpn abolished gsn mRNA rhythms and rhythmic glycogen accumulation. Furthermore, we show that gsn promoter activity is rhythmic and is directly controlled by core clock component white collar complex (WCC). We also discovered that WCC-regulated transcription factors, VOS-1 and CSP-1, modulate the phase and amplitude of rhythmic gsn mRNA, and these changes are similarly reflected in glycogen oscillations. Together, these data indicate the importance of clock-regulated gsn transcription over signaling or allosteric control of glycogen rhythms, a mechanism that is potentially conserved in mammals and critical to metabolic homeostasis.
    https://www.pnas.org/content/116/21/10435

    nic ciekawego, ale warto zaznaczyć:

    29 May 2019
    Ultra-processed food and adverse health outcomes
    https://www.bmj.com/content/365/bmj.l2289

    Circadian clock regulation of the glycogen synthase (gsn) gene by WCC is critical for rhythmic glycogen metabolism in Neurospora crassa

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to anticipate daily environmental cycles and control the timing of numerous biological processes, including metabolism, to optimize the health and survival of organisms. Glycogen metabolism is a conserved glucose homeostatic process; however, the molecular mechanisms linking the circadian clock and glycogen metabolism remain largely unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that circadian clock-dependent transcriptional regulation of glycogen synthase, gsn, regulates circadian oscillations of GSN protein and glycogen accumulation in the model filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa.
    https://www.pnas.org/content/116/21/10435

    MAY 30, 2019
    Sunshine may decrease risk of inflammatory bowel disease

    Children who spend half an hour a day outside in the sun reduce their risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to new research from The Australian National University (ANU).
    More than 800,000 people live with the two life-long disorders which make up IBD—Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
    The pediatric study was based in Melbourne and led by Professor Robyn Lucas, from the ANU College of Health and Medicine.
    "Taking children to play outside in the sun could be life-changing," Professor Lucas said.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...l-disease.html

    szczepionka na stres prosto z gleby - kolejny argument, żeby ściągnąć buty:

    Healthy, stress-busting fat found hidden in dirt

    The discovery, published Monday in the journal Psychopharmacology, may at least partly explain how the bacterium, Mycobacterium vaccae, quells stress-related disorders. It also brings the researchers one step closer to developing a microbe-based "stress vaccine."
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...dden-dirt.html

    to już tradycja:

    Don't take your smartphone to bed if you want a good night's sleep

    A newly released online and telephone parent-teen study from Common Sense Media bears this out: Nearly 7 in 10 children, or a slightly lesser percentage than their parents, kept their mobile device either in bed or within easy reach. And 29% of the younger group actually sleeps with the device, compared to 12% of parents.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ood-night.html

    Stressed pregnant moms may mean lower sperm counts: study

    Men whose mothers suffered stressful events such as divorce or job loss in early pregnancy are more likely to have fewer and less active sperm, researchers said Thursday.

    Among Australian 20-year-olds born of women who experienced at least three such events during the first 18 weeks of foetal growth, sperm count was a third lower and mobility down by 12 percent compared to other men their age, they reported in the journal Human Reproduction.

    Testosterone levels were also lower, by about ten percent.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...oms-sperm.html

    Brain activity in teens predicts future mood health

    "Our challenge as clinicians, scientists, and parents, is: how do we predict which teens will experience mood problems in the near future?".

    Dr. Kaiser and colleagues tested the idea of using fMRI to predict future mood health. They measured the activity of frontoinsular networks while adolescents played a difficult computer game involving emotional images. Current prediction tools mostly use self-report, which can be unreliable in teens.

    "Our results showed that adolescents who showed imbalanced coordination across brain systems—that is, lower coordination among areas involved in goal-directed attention, and higher coordination among areas involved in self-focused thought—went on to report bigger increases in depression two weeks later, bigger mood swings, and higher intensity of negative mood in daily life," said Dr. Kaiser.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...od-health.html

    No effect of 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation on the skeletal muscle transcriptome in vitamin D deficient frail older adults.

    METHODS:
    A double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted in vitamin D deficient frail older adults (aged above 65), characterized by blood 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations between 20 and 50 nmol/L. Subjects were randomized across the placebo group and the calcifediol group (10 μg per day). Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 6 months of calcifediol (n = 10) or placebo (n = 12) supplementation and subjected to whole genome gene expression profiling using Affymetrix HuGene 2.1ST arrays.

    RESULTS:
    Expression of the vitamin D receptor gene was virtually undetectable in human skeletal muscle biopsies, with Ct values exceeding 30. Blood 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels were significantly higher after calcifediol supplementation (87.3 ± 20.6 nmol/L) than after placebo (43.8 ± 14.1 nmol/L). No significant difference between treatment groups was observed on strength outcomes. The whole transcriptome effects of calcifediol and placebo were very weak, as indicated by the fact that correcting for multiple testing using false discovery rate did not yield any differentially expressed genes using any reasonable cut-offs (all q-values ~ 1). P-values were uniformly distributed across all genes, suggesting that low p-values are likely to be false positives. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis and principle component analysis was unable to separate treatment groups.

    CONCLUSION:
    Calcifediol supplementation did not significantly affect the skeletal muscle transcriptome in frail older adults. Our findings indicate that vitamin D supplementation has no effects on skeletal muscle gene expression, suggesting that skeletal muscle may not be a direct target of vitamin D in older adults.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31138136


    Molekularne skamieliny

    Przez atmosferę młodej Ziemi, bez tlenu, a co za tym idzie - ozonu, docierało mocne promieniowanie UV. W takich warunkach powstawały pierwsze biocząstki, podstawowe cegiełki budujące życie. One istnieją do dziś tworząc DNA i RNA. Badania wpływu światła na chemię, która mogła wytworzyć biocząsteczki, prowadzi dr Rafał Szabla z Instytutu Fizyki PAN w Warszawie.

    Naukowiec został wyróżniony w tegorocznej edycji stypendiów START Fundacji na rzecz Nauki Polskiej.

    Jego dziedzina nauki - fotochemia cząstek - bada zachowanie cząstek pod wpływem światła w niesłychanie krótkim czasie - jednej milionowej milionowej sekundy. Badacz zajmuje się opisem zjawisk z zakresu mechaniki kwantowej. Symuluje reakcje, jakie mogłyby zachodzić u zarania życia.
    http://naukawpolsce.pap.pl/aktualnos...al&utm_source=
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 31-05-19 o 07:02
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  5. #770
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    po raz kolejny, instrukcje zegara wątrobowego działają w olbrzymiej niezależności od zegara centralnego (SCN).
    Wydawało się do tej pory, że dyrygentem są neurony jądra nadskrzyżowaniowego, natomiast okazuje, że wątroba "widzi" światło nawet jak się wytnie główny detektor, albo inaczej wątroba zobaczy, że jest jasno nawet jak zamkniesz oczy. Najprawdopodobniej informacja o czasie jest zbierana z innych narządów. Tym narządem okazać się może podskórna tkanka tłuszczona w której jest zakotwiczona melanopsyna - nie wiem.
    Dziennie zegary zostają wygaszane jak mysz zostanie odcięta w całości od śiwtała.

    •Light synchronizes circadian clocks in absence of other Bmal1-dependent clocks

    •Synchronization of circadian clocks by light does not rely on rhythmic feeding

    •In absence of light, circadian synchronization requires non-tissue-autonomous Bmal1

    •Epidermal Bmal1 partly sustains homeostasis in arrhythmic, prematurely aging mice



    odrobinka światła w nocy ?




    i na koniec, wspominałem o tym -frazzerr coś dla Ciebie
    Coś o obojętnych falach radiowych - w odpowiednim przypadku i dawce potrafią niszczyć nowotwór.

    A new targeted therapy using non-thermal radio waves has been shown to block the growth of liver cancer cells anywhere in the body without damaging healthy cells, according to a study conducted by scientists at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Health.(...)
    "Our study showed that the radiofrequency delivered was at low and safe levels," Pasche said. "It was actually lower than those generated by holding a cell phone close to the ear."

    The research team utilized a device, invented by Pasche and Alexandre Barbault, of TheraBionic GmbH in Ettlingen, Germany, that delivered cancer-specific, amplitude-modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (AM RF EMF) programmed specifically for HCC. The AM RF EMF activated a calcium channel on the surface of HCC tumor cells but not on noncancerous cells, Pasche said.

    "We discovered that a specific calcium channel, Cav3.2, was acting like an antenna for the radio signals we sent out, which allowed calcium to penetrate the HCC cell membrane and go into the cell, triggering HCC growth arrest," Pasche said.

    "Our team found it was the influx of calcium that stopped the growth of HCC cells and shrunk, and in some cases eliminated, the tumors. This effect was the same even if the cancer had metastasized to other parts of the body."

    The team's next step will be to identify the exact signaling cascade within the tumor cell that leads to the anti-cancer effects, Pasche said.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...er-cancer.html

    mechanizm już przedstawiałem:


    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...13935118300355


    moment w których kortyzol ratuje życie :



    dobrej nocy.
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 01-06-19 o 20:50
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  6. #771
    i na koniec, wspominałem o tym -frazzerr coś dla Ciebie
    Coś o obojętnych falach radiowych - w odpowiednim przypadku i dawce potrafią niszczyć nowotwór.
    Przekręcasz mój nick za każdym razem, dwa jak coś może mieć wpływ i być obojętne na raz?

    Trzy technika fajna ok, ale nie będzie działać na każdy rodzaj komórek nowotworowych niestety.
    Ostatnio edytowane przez fazzeerr ; 01-06-19 o 20:54

  7. #772
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    Przekręcasz mój nick za każdym razem
    a trzeba było wymyślać takie dziwactwo ? nie można był inaczej? bardziej wpadającego w ucho?

    było już za późno, musisz wybaczyć - miało być:
    Coś o "obojętnych" falach radiowych ...
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 02-06-19 o 05:28
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  8. #773
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    było wiadomo od dawna, ale teraz został przedstawiony mechanizm : temperatura wpływa na jakość snu



    The LH contains numerous cell types, including MCH and Hcrt neurons, which show a reciprocal firing pattern with MCH activity maximal in REM sleep and Hcrt activity maximal in wake [33]. These data suggest either direct or indirect reciprocal inhibition [34]. Numerous input variables may modulate the LH (see text). The MCH and Hcrt systems also exhibit opposing effects on many peripheral physiological processes. For example, whereas Hcrt promotes wakefulness, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, locomotion, food intake, and sympathetic drive, the MCH system promotes REM sleep and an inhibition of many of these same peripheral systems. We propose that several input variables, such as warm ambient temperature, positive energy balance, high sleep pressure, or the inactive circadian phase, may shift the balance toward the MCH system and REM sleep expression. An increased drive for REM sleep may manifest as a greater probability for NREM to REM sleep transitions, a decrease in inter-REM intervals, or an increase in REM sleep bout durations. (a) The MnPO and POA contain warm sensitive neurons that may directly or indirectly modulate the LH. (b) MCH may either increase or decrease food intake, depending on food availability and energy status. Straight arrowheads or bars represent activation or inhibition, respectively. MnPO, median preoptic nucleus; POA, preoptic area. Reprinted with permission from [7].
    https://www.cell.com/current-biology...822(19)30542-1

    Nieswoiste zapalenia jelit ?

    Seasonal Clock Changes Are Underappreciated Health Risks-Also in IBD?

    Abstract
    Today, daylight saving time is observed in nearly 80 countries around the world, including the European Union, the USA, Canada, and Russia. The benefits of daylight saving time in energy management have been questioned since it was first introduced during World War I and the latest research has led to varying results. Meanwhile, adverse effects of seasonal time shifts on human biology have been postulated and the European Union is planning to abandon the biannual clock change completely. Medical studies have revealed a correlation of seasonal time shifts with increased incidences of several diseases including stroke, myocardial infarction, and unipolar depressive episodes. Moreover, studies in mice have provided convincing evidence, that circadian rhythm disruption may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, mainly by disturbing the intestinal barrier integrity. Here, we present previously unpublished data from a large German cohort indicating a correlation of seasonal clock changes and medical leaves due to ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Furthermore, we discuss the health risks of clock changes and the current attempts on reforming daylight saving time from a medical perspective.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/...ct&utm_source=


    Sleep and Environmental Factors Affecting Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
    Sleep and environmental factors both impact glycemic control in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This narrative article aims to review research within the past 5 years, focusing on chronotype, light, noise, and neighborhood disparities in relation to sleep in people with T2DM.

    RECENT FINDINGS:
    Sleep quality and duration have been shown to impact glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Later chronotype can lead to poorer glycemic control due to disruption of circadian rhythms. Light exposure also has similar effects, likely due to its inherent influence on sleep quality. Environmental determinants, were associated with lower T2DM incidence, and noise and air pollution were associated with increased risks for T2DM. Findings were mixed; while most studies found that later chronotype, light/noise exposure, and neighborhood disadvantages were associated with poorer glycemic control in patients with T2DM, other environmental factors, such as green space, were not significantly associated with diabetes outcomes.
    link do poprzedniego badania, bo nie dałem.

    Acute exposure to low-level light at night is sufficient to induce neurological changes and depressive-like behavior
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-019-0430-4
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  9. #774
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    Interventions to promote cardiometabolic health and slow cardiovascular ageing

    Cardiovascular ageing and the atherosclerotic process begin very early in life, most likely in utero. They progress over decades of exposure to suboptimal or abnormal metabolic and hormonal risk factors, eventually culminating in very common, costly, and mostly preventable target-organ pathologies, including coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease, and vascular dementia. In this Review, we discuss findings from preclinical and clinical studies showing that calorie restriction (CR), intermittent fasting, and adjusted diurnal rhythm of feeding, with adequate intake of specific macronutrients and micronutrients, are powerful interventions not only for the prevention of cardiovascular disease but also for slowing the accumulation of molecular damage leading to cardiometabolic dysfunction. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanisms through which a number of other nondietary interventions, such as regular physical activity, mindfulness-based stress-reduction exercises, and some CR-mimetic drugs that target pro-ageing pathways, can potentiate the beneficial effects of a healthy diet in promoting cardiometabolic health.
    Key points
    Cardiovascular ageing is a biological phenomenon caused by the accumulation over time of damage at the cellular, tissue, and organismal level leading to a progressive decline in function and structure.

    Unhealthy lifestyle practices (such as poor nutrition, sedentary lifestyle, mental stress, smoking, and pollution) drastically increase the accrual of cellular and tissue damage, leading to cardiovascular disease.

    Calorie restriction, intermittent fasting, and adjusted diurnal rhythm of feeding are powerful interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.

    Lowered intake of protein, specific amino acids, and saturated fatty acids (typical of the Mediterranean diet) and nutritional modulation of the gut microbiome can have additional cardioprotective roles.

    Regular endurance and resistance exercise, mindfulness-based stress reduction programmes, and some calorie-restriction mimetic medications can potentiate the beneficial effects of a healthy diet.




    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41569-018-0026-8


    Sleepless nights linked to high blood pressure

    A bad night's sleep may result in a spike in blood pressure that night and the following day, according to new research led by the University of Arizona.

    The study, to be published in the journal Psychosomatic Medicine, offers one possible explanation for why sleep problems have been shown to increase the risk of heart attack, stroke and even death from cardiovascular disease.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...igh-blood.html

    Extending sleep may lower cardiometabolic risk

    Increasing sleep duration may help reduce cardiometabolic risk—or the risk of heart disease and metabolic disorders— in individuals who do not get enough sleep, according to an analysis of all published studies on the topic.

    The Journal of Sleep Research analysis, which was led by researchers at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, included seven studies that aimed to increase sleep duration in adults by any sleep extension intervention. These studies had a combined number of 138 participants who were either healthy, healthy short-sleeping, overweight short-sleeping, or pre- or hypertensive short-sleeping individuals. The durations of the sleep extension interventions ranged from three days to six weeks and all successfully increased total sleep time by between 21 and 177 minutes.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...metabolic.html


    'Only the stressed die young': The trade-off between stress resilience and longevity

    The survival and fitness of multicellular organisms is tightly associated with their capacity to renew their tissues. This is particularly important for tissues that are permanently exposed to and challenged by the external environment, such as the epithelium, which lines the digestive tract. Researchers led by Professor Dr. Mirka Uhlirova from CECAD, the Cluster of Excellence for Aging Research at the University of Cologne collaborated with the laboratory of Dr. Tony Southall from Imperial College London to identify the transcription factor Ets21c as a vital regulator of the regenerative programme in the adult intestine of the fruit fly Drosophila. Moreover, their work highlighted the existence of trade-off mechanisms between stress resilience and longevity. The results have now been published in the journal Cell Reports.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ff-stress.html

    Could boosting the gut microbiome be the secret to healthier older age?

    Faecal transplants from young to aged mice can stimulate the gut microbiome and revive the gut immune system, a study by immunologists at the Babraham Institute, Cambridge, has shown. The research is published in the journal Nature Communications today.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...healthier.html

    How chronic inflammation may drive down dopamine and motivation

    Growing evidence shows that the brain's dopamine system, which drives motivation, is directly affected by chronic, low-grade inflammation. A new paper proposes that this connection between dopamine, effort and the inflammatory response is an adaptive mechanism to help the body conserve energy.

    Trends in Cognitive Sciences published the theoretical framework developed by scientists at Emory University. The authors also provided a computational method to experimentally test their theory.

    "When your body is fighting an infection or healing a wound, your brain needs a mechanism to recalibrate your motivation to do other things so you don't use up too much of your energy," says corresponding author Michael Treadway, an associate professor in Emory's Department of Psychology, who studies the relationship between motivation and mental illness. "We now have strong evidence suggesting that the immune system disrupts the dopamine system to help the brain perform this recalibration."
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-dopamine.html

    Dietary supplements linked with severe health events in children, young adults

    Consumption of dietary supplements sold for weight loss, muscle building, and energy was associated with increased risk for severe medical events in children and young adults compared to consumption of vitamins, according to new research led by Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. The study found that, compared with vitamins, these types of supplements were linked to nearly three times as many severe medical outcomes in young people.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...re-health.html



    https://journals.humankinetics.com/d...snem.2018-0267

    i znowu mordercze jajka

    Study: Cholesterol in eggs tied to cardiac disease, death
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...c-disease.html

    zachód słońca ze stacji kosmicznej:

    correlation doesn't imply causation

  10. #775
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    Irregular sleep patterns linked to metabolic disorders

    A new study has found that not sticking to a regular bedtime and wake up schedule -- and getting different amounts of sleep each night -- can put a person at higher risk for obesity, high cholesterol, hypertension, high blood sugar and other metabolic disorders. In fact, for every hour of variability in time to bed and time asleep, a person may have up to a 27% greater chance of experiencing a metabolic abnormality.
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0605133514.htm

    fale radiowe już były, więc czas na mikrofale:

    Nanoparticles stimulated by microwaves to combat cancer

    In a recently published paper in the journal Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, UTA physics Professor Wei Chen and a team of international collaborators advanced the idea of using titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles stimulated by microwaves to trigger the death of cancer cells without damaging the normal cells around them.
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0604162534.htm

    prawdopodobnie tylko artefakt statystyczny, ale ...

    Coffee Intake and Obesity: A Meta-Analysis

    Our meta-analysis suggests that higher coffee intake might be modestly associated with reduced adiposity, particularly in men
    https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/6/1274

    The Moderating Role of Sleep in the Relationship Between Social Isolation and Internalising Problems in Early Adolescence

    Social isolation may be a unique risk factor for depression and anxiety in early adolescence. However, optimal sleep may protect adolescents from the emotional sequela of social isolation. The present study aimed to investigate whether sleep moderates the relationship between social isolation and symptoms of anxiety and depression in early adolescence. Five hundred and twenty eight early adolescents (M = 11.18 years, SD = 0.56, range 10–12 years, 51% male) completed online questionnaires assessing social isolation, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and symptoms of generalised anxiety, social anxiety, separation anxiety and depression. Sleep duration moderated the effect of social isolation on symptoms of generalised anxiety, social anxiety and depression, but not separation anxiety. Daytime sleepiness emerged as an additional sleep-related risk factor in the relationship between social isolation and depressive symptoms. Therefore, sleep may be an important modifiable risk or protective factor to target, in the prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescence.
    https://link.springer.com/article/10...78-019-00901-9

    Poor sleep is unlikely to contribute to higher BMI in children

    Children need more than a good night's sleep to have a healthy weight, according to a new study in the journal Obesity that explores the relationship between sleep, body mass index (BMI) and cortisol levels in children.

    Shorter sleep duration has been linked to higher BMI, and that relationship has led researchers to consider whether poor sleep might contribute to higher BMI. This study found that kids with shorter sleep duration had higher BMI in general, but no evidence of a causal link.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-children.html

    a na starość, przynajmniej jak jesteś myszą:



    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41569-018-0026-8#Fig4

    Ultimate limit of human endurance found

    The ultimate limit of human endurance has been worked out by scientists analysing a 3,000 mile run, the Tour de France and other elite events.
    They showed the cap was 2.5 times the body's resting metabolic rate, or 4,000 calories a day for an average person.
    Anything higher than that was not sustainable in the long term.

    A Race Across the USA runner has his resting energy expenditure measured
    https://www.bbc.com/news/health-48527798


    sezon na truskawki:

    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 06-06-19 o 09:01
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  11. #776
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    Trial finds vitamin D does not prevent type 2 diabetes in people at high risk

    Taking a daily vitamin D supplement does not prevent type 2 diabetes in adults at high risk, according to results from a study funded by National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) study enrolled 2,423 adults and was conducted at 22 sites across the United States. These findings were published June 7 in the New England Journal of Medicine and presented at the 79th Scientific Sessions of the American Diabetes Association in San Francisco.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...es-people.html

    Sun-exposed oyster mushrooms help patients fight tuberculosis

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases in low income countries, with around 1.6 million people dying of the disease each year. In a new study, researchers show that sun-exposed oyster mushrooms offer a readily available source of vitamin D that can help TB patients respond better to anti-TB drugs by improving immune response.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...erculosis.html

    Insufficient sleep linked to mental health in college students and athletes

    Preliminary results from a new study suggest that there is a dose-response relationship between insufficient sleep and mental health symptoms in collegiate students, including varsity athletes.

    Results show that in adjusted models, insufficient sleep was associated with all mental health variables, and a dose-response relationship resulted when insufficient sleep was treated as categorical. With every additional night of insufficient sleep, the risk of experiencing mental health symptoms increased on average by more than 20% - including an increased risk of 21% for depressed mood, 24% for hopelessness, 24% for anger, 25% for anxiety, 25% for desire to self-harm, 28% for functional problems, and 28% for suicide ideation.

    "It was really surprising to see how strongly insufficient sleep was associated with a wide variety of mental health symptoms among college students," said lead author Thea Ramsey, an undergraduate student at the University of Arizona in Tucson. "Also, it was intriguing that while student-athletes experienced on average fewer nights of insufficient sleep and better mental health, the relationship between insufficient sleep and mental health was as strong or stronger in athletes compared to non-athletes."
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...h-college.html

    co się dzieje z Twoim kortyzolem > wystarczy spojrzeć na pas.

    Pies denerwuje się wraz ze swoim opiekunem

    Pies czuje stres swojego opiekuna i też się denerwuje – piszą na łamach czasopisma „Scientific Reports” naukowcy z Linköping University. Szwedzcy badacze wykazali, że emocje człowieka i czworonoga podążają swoim śladem, ale to zwierze reaguje na stres człowieka, a nie odwrotnie. Badania prowadzono na przestrzeni wielu miesięcy, korzystając z możliwosci analizy poziomu hormonu stresu, zapisanego we włosach opiekunów, a właściwie opiekunek i ich pociech.
    https://losyziemi.pl/pies-denerwuje-...woim-opiekunem

    węglowodany mają poważny problem:

    Zimą 2017/2018 roku o 16 procent spadła ilość kolonii pszczół w co najmniej 36 krajach

    W zimie z 2017 na 2018 r. liczba kolonii pszczół spadła o 16% – ustalił międzynarodowy zespół naukowców, pracujący pod przewodnictwem specjalistów z University of Strathclyde. Analiza objęła 25.363 pszczelarzy z 36 krajów.
    https://losyziemi.pl/zima-2017-2018-...iej-36-krajach

    gatunek ludzi również, w dodatku:

    Spada jakość męskiego nasienia, plemniki coraz częściej zawierają uszkodzony materiał genetyczny

    Naukowcy ostrzegają – spada jakość męskiego nasienia. Przez ostatnie 40-50 lat aż o 50 procent. Plemniki coraz częściej zawierają zdeformowany materiał genetyczny – zauważają lekarze. W związku z tym coraz więcej mężczyzn zmaga się z niepłodnością. Problem jest poważny, bo nic nie wskazuje na to, by w przyszłości sytuacja miała zmienić się na lepsze.
    https://losyziemi.pl/spada-jakosc-me...ial-genetyczny


    było już sporo o Angolach, teraz okazuje się, że zabrali się za żyletkę:

    UK – Alarmujący wzrost ilości samookaleczeń w Anglii

    Badanie Lancet Psychiatry wykazało, że w 2014 roku 6 procent osób doznało samookaleczenia. Liczby te znacznie wzrosły – jeszcze w 2010 roku było to 2 procent. Najwyższy odsetek odnotowano u osób w wieku 16-24 lat.
    https://losyziemi.pl/uk-alarmujacy-w...eczen-w-anglii


    sowy do przeprogramowania w 3 tygodnie - jeden prosty trik który odmieni Twoje życie

    Night owls can 'retrain' their body clocks to improve mental well-being and performance

    A simple tweak to the sleeping patterns of 'night owls' - people with extreme late sleeping and waking habits—could lead to significant improvements in sleep/wake timings, improved performance in the mornings, better eating habits and a decrease in depression and stress.

    New international research by the Universities of Birmingham and Surrey in the UK, and Monash University in Australia, showed that, over a three-week period, it was possible to shift the circadian rhythm of 'night owls' using non-pharmacological and practical interventions.

    The study, published in Sleep Medicine today (INSERT DATE), showed participants were able to bring forward their sleep/wake timings by two hours, while having no negative effect on sleep duration. In addition, participants reported a decrease in feelings of depression and stress, as well as in daytime sleepiness.

    "Our research findings highlight the ability of a simple non-pharmacological intervention to phase advance 'night owls', reduce negative elements of mental health and sleepiness, as well as manipulate peak performance times in the real world," lead researcher Dr. Elise Facer-Childs from Monash University's Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health said.

    'Night owls' are individuals whose internal body clock dictates later-than-usual sleep and wake times—in this study participants had an average bedtime of 2.30am and wake-up time of 10.15am.

    Disturbances to the sleep/wake system have been linked to a variety of health issues, including mood swings, increased morbidity and mortality rates, and declines in cognitive and physical performance.

    "Having a late sleep pattern puts you at odds with the standard societal days, which can lead to a range of adverse outcomes—from daytime sleepiness to poorer mental wellbeing," study co-author Dr. Andrew Bagshaw from the University of Birmingham said.

    "We wanted to see if there were simple things people could do at home to solve this issue. This was successful, on average allowing people to get to sleep and wake up around two hours earlier than they were before. Most interestingly, this was also associated with improvements in mental wellbeing and perceived sleepiness, meaning that it was a very positive outcome for the participants. We now need to understand how habitual sleep patterns are related to the brain, how this links with mental wellbeing and whether the interventions lead to long-term changes."

    Twenty-two healthy individuals participated in the study. For a period of three weeks participants in the experimental group were asked to:

    Wake up 2-3 hours before regular wake up time and maximise outdoor light during the mornings.
    Go to bed 2-3 hours before habitual bedtime and limit light exposure in the evening.
    Keep sleep/wake times fixed on both work days and free days.
    Have breakfast as soon as possible after waking up, eat lunch at the same time each day, and refrain from eating dinner after 7pm.
    The results highlighted an increase in cognitive (reaction time) and physical (grip strength) performance during the morning when tiredness is often very high in 'night owls', as well as a shift in peak performance times from evening to afternoon. It also increased the number of days in which breakfast was consumed and led to better mental well-being, with participants reporting a decrease in feelings of stress and depression.

    "Establishing simple routines could help 'night owls' adjust their body clocks and improve their overall physical and mental health. Insufficient levels of sleep and circadian misalignment can disrupt many bodily processes putting us at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes," Professor Debra Skene from the University of Surrey said.

    Dr. Facer-Childs said 'night owls', compared to 'morning larks', tended to be more compromised in our society due to having to fit to work/school schedules that are out of sync with their preferred patterns.

    "By acknowledging these differences and providing tools to improve outcomes we can go a long way in a society that is under constant pressure to achieve optimal productivity and performance," she said.

    This intervention could also be applied within more niche settings, such as industry or within sporting sectors, which have a key focus on developing strategies to maximise productivity and optimise performance at certain times and in different conditions.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...dy-clocks.html


    pozdrawiam naukowo i szmańsko



    mamy obecnie mocne UV więc pozdrawiam dla zasady ciepło i jak najbardziej rakotwórczo !
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  12. #777
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    Fala elektromagnetyczna na nieswoiste zapalenie jelit:

    JUNE 10, 2019
    Half an hour of sun exposure daily may lower risk for pediatric IBD

    (HealthDay)—Higher sun exposure in the previous summer or winter is associated with a lower risk for having pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to a study recently published in the Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition.

    Elizabeth Ann Holmes, from the Australian National University in Canberra, and colleagues recruited 99 children (ages 0 to 17 years) with IBD from two large hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, as well as 396 control participants from the day surgery unit of one of the hospitals. Surveys assessed demographics, previous sun exposure, the likelihood of sunburn (skin sensitivity) or tanning following sun exposure, use of sun protection, physical activity, and parental smoking and education.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...pediatric.html

    w koło Macieju ...

    JUNE 10, 2019
    Bedroom light at night might boost women's weight

    That's the finding of new research published in JAMA Internal Medicine. While the study doesn't prove that sleeping with a light on causes weight gain, it suggests the two may be linked, the researchers said.

    "Turning off the light while sleeping may be a useful tool for reducing a possibility of weight gain and becoming overweight or obese," said lead author Dr. Yong-Moon Mark Park. He is a postdoctoral fellow at the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in Research Triangle Park, N.C.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...en-weight.html

    nic odkrywczego, ale warte zaznaczenia:

    JUNE 10, 2019
    What and how you eat affects your odds for type 2 diabetes

    (HealthDay)—The kind of foods you eat, and even the order in which you eat them can affect your odds of developing type 2 diabetes, three new studies suggest.

    Dr. Rekha Kumar, an endocrinologist at NewYork-Presbyterian and Weill Cornell Medical Center in New York City, reviewed the findings.

    "Emphasizing fruits and vegetables and whole foods is a very practical and easy way to manage type 2 diabetes," she said. "Half your plate should be green, even at breakfast, when you could have an egg white omelet with spinach for example."

    As for the sequence of eating, Kumar said vegetables, high-fiber foods and even protein take longer to leave the stomach, which slows down the rise in blood sugar levels.

    "Theoretically, changing the order you eat foods could have implications on weight and appetite control," she said.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-diabetes.html

    Komórkowy potencjał redoks oraz sprawność metabolizmu mitochondrialnego jest bezśrednio regulowana snem:

    A Hyperkinetic Redox Sensor Drives Flies to Sleep

    Several different potassium channels modulate the activity of sleep-promoting neurons in the Drosophila brain, but the regulation of these channels is not completely understood. A recent study (Kempf et al., Nature, 2019) found that one of the potassium channel subunits, Hyperkinetic, alters the firing properties of sleep-promoting neurons in response to NADPH oxidation. These findings are the first to link cellular redox state and mitochondrial metabolism directly to sleep.
    https://pbs.twimg.com/media/D8Zjvn0X4AALSsN.png
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...66223619300888

    Effects of exercise training on metabolic and cardiovascular variables


    https://www.nature.com/articles/s415...026-8/tables/1


    było ale teraz w języku ojczystym:

    Witamina D wytworzona pod wpływem słońca w boczniakach pomaga w walce z gruźlicą

    W krajach o niskim dochodzie gruźlica pozostaje jedną z najbardziej śmiertelnych chorób zakaźnych. Każdego roku umiera na nią ok. 1,6 mln osób. W nowym badaniu wykazano, że wystawione na oddziaływanie słońca boczniaki ostrygowate stanowią szybko dostępne źródło witaminy D, a ta sprawia, że ludzie lepiej reagują na leki przeciwgruźlicze (poprawia się ich odpowiedź immunologiczna).
    https://kopalniawiedzy.pl/boczniaki-...m-Keflie,30213

    zaskakujący mozaicyzm wiekowy organów metabolicznych wątroby i trzustki:

    Kiedyś sądzono, że najstarszymi komórkami w organizmie człowieka są neurony i, być może, komórki serca. Teraz naukowcy z Salk Institute udowodnili, że u myszy komórki oraz białka mózgu, wątroby i trzustki są także bardzo stare. Niektóre równie stare co neurony. Metoda wykorzystana w Salk może zostać użyta do zdobycia bezcennych informacji na temat funkcji niedzielących się komórek oraz o tym, jak z wiekiem tracą one kontrolę nad jakością i integralnością protein oraz innych ważnych struktur komórkowych.
    https://kopalniawiedzy.pl/wiek-organ...trzustka,30207

    Znamy granicę wytrzymałości ludzkiego organizmu

    Ironman, ultramaraton w Dolinie Śmierci czy wyścig Tour de France testują granice ludzkiej wytrzymałości. Niektórzy twierdzą, że granice te istnieją jedynie w głowie, jednak naukowcy właśnie określili, gdzie się one znajdują.

    Uczeni z Duke University, badając wydatki energetyczne osób biorących udział w najbardziej wymagających wydarzeniach sportowych, stwierdzili, że u każdego człowieka występuje ten sam limit metaboliczny, czyli maksymalny poziom wysiłku, jaki może on długoterminowo wytrzymać. Okazuje się, że w przypadku wysiłku fizycznego trwającego całymi dniami, tygodniami i miesiącami, człowiek może spalać kalorie w tempie nie przekraczającym 2,5-krotności tempa spalania
    https://kopalniawiedzy.pl/metabolizm...zymalosc,30197

    i coś ciekawego w końcu:

    Curbing your enthusiasm for overeating

    Signals between our gut and brain control how and when we eat food. But how the molecular mechanisms involved in this signaling are affected when we eat a high-energy diet and how they contribute to obesity are not well understood.

    overactive endocannabinoid signaling in the gut drives overeating in diet-induced obesity by blocking gut-brain satiation signaling.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...vereating.html

    10 May 2019
    Generation of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus



    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is remarkable. Despite numbering only about 10,000 neurons on each side of the third ventricle, the SCN is our principal circadian clock, directing the daily cycles of behaviour and physiology that set the tempo of our lives. When this nucleus is isolated in organotypic culture, its autonomous timing mechanism can persist indefinitely, with precision and robustness. The discovery of the cell-autonomous transcriptional and post-translational feedback loops that drive circadian activity in the SCN provided a powerful exemplar of the genetic specification of complex mammalian behaviours. However, the analysis of circadian time-keeping is moving beyond single cells. Technical and conceptual advances, including intersectional genetics, multidimensional imaging and network theory, are beginning to uncover the circuit-level mechanisms and emergent properties that make the SCN a uniquely precise and robust clock. However, much remains unknown about the SCN, not least the intrinsic properties of SCN neurons, its circuit topology and the neuronal computations that these circuits support. Moreover, the convention that the SCN is a neuronal clock has been overturned by the discovery that astrocytes are an integral part of the timepiece. As a test bed for examining the relationships between genes, cells and circuits in sculpting complex behaviours, the SCN continues to offer powerful lessons and opportunities for contemporary
    z byt proste żeby było prawdziwe:

    correlation doesn't imply causation

  13. #778
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    May 2014
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    wygląda jakbym zlecał te niusy medyczne ...

    JUNE 12, 2019
    From obesity to allergies, outdoor play is the best medicine for children

    What if there was a simple, inexpensive and fun way to address some of the major challenges facing humanity today. What if it could help improve children's health, development and well-being?

    Imagine a solution that could stem the current epidemics of obesity, anxiety and depression affecting children and youth today. Imagine that this solution could also promote brain health, creativity and academic achievement and prepare our children for the rapidly-changing work force.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-children.html

    JUNE 12, 2019
    Surprising ways owning a dog is good for your health

    (HealthDay)—Apart from the sheer fun of owning a pet, having a dog enhances well-being and even personal growth in many ways.

    Caring for a dog teaches kids responsibility and offers everyone in the family unconditional love. Many studies have found that the social support that dogs—and pets in general—provide boosts their owner's emotional health.

    There are also many physical benefits to dog ownership.

    Walking Rover on a regular basis—once or twice every day—can help you reach your own daily exercise goals and, in turn, lower your heart disease risk. In fact, according to one study, owners who walk their dogs on a regular basis are over 50% more likely to meet minimum exercise guidelines. Surprisingly, though, many people simply don't walk their dogs enough for them or their pets to get in a good workout.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...od-health.html

    Even in young children: Higher weight = higher blood pressure

    Overweight four-year-olds have a doubled risk of high blood pressure by age six, raising the hazard of future heart attack and stroke. That's the finding of a study published today in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, a journal of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ght-blood.html

    Time-Restricted Eating to Prevent and Manage Chronic Metabolic Diseases



    Molecular clocks are present in almost every cell to anticipate daily recurring and predictable changes, such as rhythmic nutrient availability, and to adapt cellular functions accordingly. At the same time, nutrient-sensing pathways can respond to acute nutrient imbalance and modulate and orient metabolism so cells can adapt optimally to a declining or increasing availability of nutrients. Organismal circadian rhythms are coordinated by behavioral rhythms such as activity–rest and feeding–fasting cycles to temporally orchestrate a sequence of physiological processes to optimize metabolism. Basic research in circadian rhythms has largely focused on the functioning of the self-sustaining molecular circadian oscillator, while research in nutrition science has yielded insights into physiological responses to caloric deprivation or to specific macronutrients. Integration of these two fields into actionable new concepts in the timing of food intake has led to the emerging practice of time-restricted eating. In this paradigm, daily caloric intake is restricted to a consistent window of 8–12 h. This paradigm has pervasive benefits on multiple organ systems.
    https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/ab...-082018-124320
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  14. #779
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    May 2014
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    1 524
    Two hours a week is key dose of nature for health and wellbeing





    Spending at least two hours a week in nature may be a crucial threshold for promoting health and wellbeing, according to a new large-scale study.

    Research led by the University of Exeter, published in Scientific Reports and funded by NIHR, found that people who spend at least 120 minutes in nature a week are significantly more likely to report good health and higher psychological wellbeing than those who don't visit nature at all during an average week. However, no such benefits were found for people who visited natural settings such as town parks, woodlands, country parks and beaches for less than 120 minutes a week.

    The study used data from nearly 20,000 people in England and found that it didn't matter whether the 120 minutes was achieved in a single visit or over several shorter visits. It also found the 120 minute threshold applied to both men and women, to older and younger adults, across different occupational and ethnic groups, among those living in both rich and poor areas, and even among people with long term illnesses or disabilities.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...se-nature.html

    Food label nutrition facts matter to you, but don't tell you much about your gut microbes


    It seems like every day a new study is published that links the bacteria in the gut to a specific disease or health condition. The allure of research like ours and that of other groups is that it might eventually be possible to give personalized recommendations for what specific foods to eat to shift your bacteria in a direction that improves your health.

    To understand how individual foods change the bacteria that live inside the human gut, collectively known as the microbiome, we need to know the microscopic makeup of each food we eat. But that data isn't available on food labels or in any current nutritional databases.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-dont-gut.html

    An extra burger meal a day eats the brain away

    The average person eats many more calories than they did 50 years ago—equivalent to an extra fast-food burger meal every day—which is having devastating results for our brains and waistlines, an ANU health expert warns.

    Professor Nicolas Cherbuin, the lead author of new research published in Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, said brain health can decline much earlier in life than previously thought due, in large part, to a society that promotes unhealthy lifestyle choices.

    "People are eating away at their brain with a really bad fast-food diet and little-to-no exercise," said Professor Cherbuin from the ANU Centre for Research on Ageing, Health and Wellbeing.

    "We've found strong evidence that people's unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise for sustained periods of time puts them at serious risk of developing type 2 diabetes and significant declines in brain function, such as dementia and brain shrinkage."
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...day-brain.html




    Berberine promotes the recruitment and activation of brown adipose tissue in mice and humans

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates metabolic energy and mediates non-shivering thermogenesis, thereby boosting energy expenditure. Increasing BAT mass and activity is expected to be a promising strategy for combating obesity; however, few medications effectively and safely recruit and activate BAT in humans. Berberine (BBR), a natural compound, is commonly used as a nonprescription drug to treat diarrhea. Here, we reported that 1-month BBR intervention increased BAT mass and activity, reduced body weight, and improved insulin sensitivity in mildly overweight patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Chronic BBR treatment promoted BAT development by stimulating the expression of brown adipogenic genes, enhanced BAT thermogenesis, and global energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice and chow-fed lean mice, Consistently, BBR facilitated brown adipocyte differentiation in both mouse and human primary brown preadipocytes. We further found that BBR increased the transcription of PRDM16, a master regulator of brown/beige adipogenesis, by inducing the active DNA demethylation of PRDM16 promoter, which might be driven by the activation of AMPK and production of its downstream tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate α-Ketoglutarate. Moreover, chronic BBR administration had no impact on the BAT thermogenesis in adipose-specific AMPKa1 and AMPKa2 knockout mice. In summary, we found that BBR intervention promoted recruitment and activation of BAT and AMPK–PRDM16 axis was indispensable for the pro-BAT and pro-energy expenditure properties of BBR. Our findings suggest that BBR may be a promising drug for obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans partially through activating BAT.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-019-1706-y

    Rest-activity circadian rhythm in breast cancer survivors at 5 years after the primary diagnosis

    Rest-activity circadian rhythm (RAR) is a marker of the circadian timing system. Particular attention has been given to RAR characteristics in cancer diseases. Specifically, alterations of RAR parameters have been found, at different stages of clinical pathway, in breast cancer (BC) patients. No studies to date have analyzed RAR alterations in breast cancer survivors several years after the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine RAR by actigraphy in a population of BC survivors at 5 years after the primary diagnosis, and to compare their RAR characteristics with healthy controls. The study sample was 28 women: 15 BC survivors at 5 years from the primary diagnosis (BC-group) and 13 healthy controls (Ctrl-group), matched for age and body mass index. All participants have been monitored for 7 days by actigraphy to evaluate RAR. A statistically significant circadian rhythm (T = 24) was found in all 28 subjects (p < .001). The group analysis revealed a significant RAR both in BC- and Ctrl-group (p < .001). The acrophase was not different between the BC- and Ctrl-group (15:09 vs. 15:01 hr:min in BC- and Ctrl-group, respectively). In contrast, the MESOR (Midline Estimating Statistic of Rhythm) and the amplitude were lower in the BC-group with respect to the Ctrl-group. Indeed, the MESOR was 192.0 vs. 276.4 activity counts in BC- and Ctrl-group, respectively (p < .001), while the amplitude was 167.0 vs. 222.6 activity counts in BC- and Ctrl-group, respectively (p < .001). These results provide the first experimental evidence of alterations in RAR parameters in BC survivors at 5 years after the primary diagnosis. Larger studies with a prospective design are needed to assess the role of RAR in the quality of life and prognosis in BC survivors.
    ups. robi się coraz poważniej - marker dobowy w celu szacowania przeżywalności ...

    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 13-06-19 o 14:48
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  15. #780
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    May 2014
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    1 524
    MELATIONIA - najbardziej gwałcony (ze szczególnym okrucieństwem) i niedoceniany hormon na świecie.

    New insights into the function of melatonin and its role in metabolic disturbances

    Article highlights

    Melatonin: basic aspects, mechanisms and modes of action

    Melatonin exhibits immediate effects which occur during the night and primes next-day effects that will take place in the absence of circulating melatonin

    Melatonin regulates glucose metabolism by inducing nocturnal insulin resistance and diurnal insulin sensitivity, which is closely associated with nocturnal fasting and diurnal feeding

    Melatonin regulates energy homeostasis, influencing feeding, and energy storage and expenditure

    Melatonin tips the energy balance in the direction of reducing food intake and increasing brown adipose tissue energy expenditure, preventing excessive body weight gain

    The regular use of melatonin for therapeutic purposes should always be taken at night and the dose and formulation should be personalized in order to prevent the lingering effects of melatonin blood pharmacological profile the next morning.
    https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/...nalCode=iere20

    Dim light at night attenuates circadian rhythms in the cardiovascular system and suppresses melatonin in rats.

    AIMS:
    Cardiovascular parameters exhibit significant 24-h variability, which is coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and light/dark cycles control SCN activity. We aimed to study the effects of light at night (ALAN; 1-2 lx) on cardiovascular system control in normotensive rats.

    MAIN METHODS:
    Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured by telemetry during five weeks of ALAN exposure. From beat-to-beat telemetry data, we evaluated spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (sBRS). After 2 (A2) and 5 (A5) weeks of ALAN, plasma melatonin concentrations and the response of BP and HR to norepinephrine administration were measured. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin-1 was determined in the aorta. Spontaneous exploratory behaviour was evaluated in an open-field test.

    KEY FINDINGS:
    ALAN significantly suppressed the 24-h variability in the HR, BP, and sBRS after A2, although the parameters were partially restored after A5. The daily variability in the BP response to norepinephrine was reduced after A2 and restored after A5. ALAN increased the BP response to norepinephrine compared to the control after A5. Increased eNOS expression was found in arteries after A2 but not A5. Endothelin-1 expression was not affected by ALAN. Plasma melatonin levels were suppressed after A2 and A5. Spontaneous exploratory behaviour was reduced.

    SIGNIFICANCE:
    ALAN decreased plasma melatonin and the 24-h variability in the haemodynamic parameters and increased the BP response to norepinephrine. A low intensity ALAN can suppress circadian control of the cardiovascular system with negative consequences on the anticipation of a load.
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...941?via%3Dihub

    Parkin Mutation Affects Clock Gene-Dependent Energy Metabolism



    Growing evidence highlights a tight connection between circadian rhythms, molecular clockworks, and mitochondrial function. In particular, mitochondrial quality control and bioenergetics have been proven to undergo circadian oscillations driven by core clock genes. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. Almost half of the autosomal recessive forms of juvenile parkinsonism have been associated with mutations in the PARK2 gene coding for parkin, shown to be involved in mitophagy-mediated mitochondrial quality control. The aim of this study was to investigate, in fibroblasts from genetic PD patients carrying parkin mutations, the interplay between mitochondrial bioenergetics and the cell autonomous circadian clock. Using two different in vitro synchronization protocols, we demonstrated that normal fibroblasts displayed rhythmic oscillations of both mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic activity. Conversely, in fibroblasts obtained from PD patients, a severe damping of the bioenergetic oscillatory patterns was observed. Analysis of the core clock genes showed deregulation of their expression patterns in PD fibroblasts, which was confirmed in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) derived thereof. The results from this study support a reciprocal interplay between the clockwork machinery and mitochondrial energy metabolism, point to a parkin-dependent mechanism of regulation, and unveil a hitherto unappreciated level of complexity in the pathophysiology of PD and eventually other neurodegenerative diseases
    HPA access:

    Pathways linking obesity to neuropsychiatric disorders



    Obesity has been associated with cognitive and behavioral syndromes. Individuals who are obese have higher risk for developing neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and dementia than non-obese. Conversely, patients with neuropsychiatric conditions may exhibit some features that contribute to obesity development such as unhealthy behaviors and treatment with drugs that increase appetite. This review addresses the multiple pathways implicated in the relationship between obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders, mainly mood disorders, schizophrenia, and major neurocognitive disorder or dementia. Both obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation. Obesity is frequently accompanied by neuroendocrine changes, particularly involving the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Indeed, activation of the stress system is commonly seen as a trigger for mood episodes, psychosis exacerbation, and cognitive decline. Growing evidence suggests the role of gut microbiota in obesity and brain functioning through the modulation of the inflammatory response and HPA axis. Owing to the intricate relationship between obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders, tackling one of them may affect the other. Therefore, a better understanding of the pathways underlying the link between obesity and neuropsychiatric disorders can contribute to the development of therapeutic strategies for these conditions.
    Highlights

    •The relationship between obesity and mood disorders is bidirectional and involves, among other factors, food preference during stress and chronic low-grade inflammation.

    •Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating behaviors, and the use of antipsychotics that can increase appetite and change eating preference contribute to weight gain in schizophrenia.

    •High body mass index and central obesity in midlife may increase the risk for dementia later in life. After midlife, lower body mass index has been associated with faster progression of dementia.
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...486?via%3Dihub

    jakieś pierdoły:

    Skipping Breakfast Before Exercise Creates a More Negative 24-hour Energy Balance: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Physically Active Young Men

    ABSTRACT
    Background
    At rest, omission of breakfast lowers daily energy intake, but also lowers energy expenditure, attenuating any effect on energy balance. The effect of breakfast omission on energy balance when exercise is prescribed is unclear.

    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on 24-h energy balance of omitting compared with consuming breakfast prior to exercise.

    Methods
    Twelve healthy physically active young men (age 23 ± 3 y, body mass index 23.6 ± 2.0 kg/m2) completed 3 trials in a randomized order (separated by >1 week): a breakfast of oats and milk (431 kcal; 65 g carbohydrate, 11 g fat, 19 g protein) followed by rest (BR); breakfast before exercise (BE; 60 min cycling at 50 % peak power output); and overnight fasting before exercise (FE). The 24-h energy intake was calculated based on the food consumed for breakfast, followed by an ad libitum lunch, snacks, and dinner. Indirect calorimetry with heart-rate accelerometry was used to measure substrate utilization and 24-h energy expenditure. A [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion was used to investigate tissue-specific carbohydrate utilization.

    Results
    The 24-h energy balance was −400 kcal (normalized 95% CI: −230, −571 kcal) for the FE trial; this was significantly lower than both the BR trial (492 kcal; normalized 95% CI: 332, 652 kcal) and the BE trial (7 kcal; normalized 95% CI: −153, 177 kcal; both P < 0.01 compared with FE). Plasma glucose utilization in FE (mainly representing liver glucose utilization) was positively correlated with energy intake compensation at lunch (r = 0.62, P = 0.03), suggesting liver carbohydrate plays a role in postexercise energy-balance regulation.

    Conclusions
    Neither exercise energy expenditure nor restricted energy intake via breakfast omission were completely compensated for postexercise. In healthy men, pre-exercise breakfast omission creates a more negative daily energy balance and could therefore be a useful strategy to induce a short-term energy deficit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02258399.
    https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-...dFrom=fulltext
    correlation doesn't imply causation

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