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Wątek: NATURALNE sposoby optymalizacji CIAŁA i DUSZY.

  1. #661
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    Fasting-mimicking diet holds promise for treating people with inflammatory bowel disease

    What if a special diet could reduce inflammation and repair your gut?

    USC researchers provided evidence that a low-calorie "fasting-mimicking" diet has the potential to do just that. Published in the March 5 edition of Cell Reports, the study reports on the health benefits of periodic cycles of the diet for people with inflammation and indicated that the diet reversed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathology in mice.

    Results showed that fasting-mimicking diet caused a reduction in intestinal inflammation and an increase in intestinal stem cells in part by promoting the expansion of beneficial gut microbiota.

    Nutritional supplements cannot prevent depression, research shows

    The study found that the supplements, which contained folic acid, vitamin D, omega-3 fish oils, zinc and selenium, worked no better than the placebos in helping participants prevent depression over one year.

    MARCH 6, 2019
    Molecular clock influences immune cell responses

    Scientists have recently recognized that cells of the same type can behave differently in response to stimulation. In a new study, Yale researchers have shown how these varied responses are due in part to a desynchronized molecular "clock" within cell populations.

    Much like human beings have circadian rhythms that affect sleepiness and wakefulness, cells also have molecular clocks that influence cell behavior. The research team, led by immunobiologist Ruslan Medzhitov, hypothesized that differences in cellular responses might be affected by the molecular clock.

    To study the phenomenon, the team focused on innate immune cells called macrophages, which are specialized cells that respond to infection. In in vitro experiments, the team determined that clock genes regulated the circadian clock of macrophages, and that the clock controlled whether the cells responded to stimulation by bacteria. In mice models, they also found that depending on the clock time, the response could be dramatically different in terms of strength as well as the percentage of cells that responded. Depending on the time cells were exposed to bacteria, different fractions of macrophages released chemicals that signal inflammation.

    The findings provide insight into how inflammation can potentially be regulated, said Medzhitov. By targeting the clock, for example, researchers can dial up or down the cellular response to inflammation. Additionally, clinicians could adjust treatments for inflammation to an optimal time of day, he noted.

    The healthier your lifestyle, the better your Natural Killer Cells function

    The Natural Killer Cells are the body's first line of defense against infectious diseases and cancer. How well that defense line functions depends, among other things, on your lifestyle. Japanese researchers, affiliated with Osaka University School, published a human study in 1992 that makes clear how strongly lifestyle and immunity are interrelated.

    The strongest positive lifestyle factors were exercise, the absence of psychological stress and sufficient sleep. Then came proper nutrition and non-smoking.
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  2. #662
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  3. #663
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    Circadian Misalignment and Cardiovascular Risk

    All organisms, ranging from single-celled organisms to humans, demonstrate circadian rhythms that are near 24-h patterns that are present independent of environmental cues. Disruption of this process, called circadian misalignment, is associated with deleterious health outcomes. The most extreme example of this misalignment is shift work, and there is evidence suggesting a strong association between shift work and certain cardiovascular outcomes. The outcomes of most studies include obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and cardiovascular events. In this article we review the current literature with an emphasis on women’s cardiovascular health. The data are conflicting, and there is a paucity of robust evidence with regard to women’s cardiovascular health and circadian misalignment. More studies are needed to better delineate the sex differences as well as the pathophysiology of the associations between circadian misalignment and cardiovascular diseases so that we can provide patients with more personalized care.
    Meal Timing and Frequency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Eating patterns are increasingly varied. Typical breakfast, lunch, and dinner meals are difficult to distinguish because skipping meals and snacking have become more prevalent. Such eating styles can have various effects on cardiometabolic health markers, namely obesity, lipid profile, insulin resistance, and blood pressure. In this statement, we review the cardiometabolic health effects of specific eating patterns: skipping breakfast, intermittent fasting, meal frequency (number of daily eating occasions), and timing of eating occasions. Furthermore, we propose definitions for meals, snacks, and eating occasions for use in research. Finally, data suggest that irregular eating patterns appear less favorable for achieving a healthy cardiometabolic profile. Intentional eating with mindful attention to the timing and frequency of eating occasions could lead to healthier lifestyle and cardiometabolic risk factor management.

    jak każdy organ, nerki również mają swój zegar:

    Key points
    Several renal functions, including renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular transport activities and diuresis, have circadian rhythms.

    Molecular clocks partially drive these oscillations and act on most intracellular processes (such as DNA replication, transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, protein sorting and membrane targeting).

    Disruption of the molecular clock in mice leads to blood pressure abnormalities and impairs the circadian rhythmicity of water and sodium homeostasis.

    The involvement of circadian rhythms and molecular clocks in human renal diseases remains uncertain, but chronopharmacology is emerging as a key player in blood pressure control.

    szacunek dla zachodu słońca, generuje same korzyści:

    correlation doesn't imply causation

  4. #664
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    coś tu się pierdoli, piszę drugi raz i wcina.
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  5. #665
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    szacunek dla zachodu slonca, generuje same korzyści:

    - poprawa snu
    - zmniejszona ryzyko wystapienia depresji/leku
    - obnizone ryzyko wystapienia CVD (insulina)

    Effects of melatonin administration on mental health parameters, metabolic and genetic profiles in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 58 subjects, aged 18-40 years old. Subjects were randomly allocated to take either 10?mg melatonin (2 melatonin capsules, 5?mg each) (n?=?29) or placebo (n?=?29) once a day 1?h before bedtime for 12 weeks. Glycemic control and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. Using RT-PCR method, gene expression related to insulin and lipid metabolism was conducted on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of PCOS women.

    Melatonin supplementation significantly decreased Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (? -2.15; 95% CI, -3.62, -0.68; P?=?0.005), Beck Depression Inventory index (? -3.62; 95% CI, -5.53, -1.78; P<0.001) and Beck Anxiety Inventory index (? -1.95; 95% CI, -3.41, -0.48; P?=?0.01) compared with the placebo. In addition, melatonin administration, compared with the placebo, significantly reduced serum insulin (? -1.20 µIU/mL; 95% CI, -2.14, -0.26; P?=?0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (? -0.28; 95% CI, -0.50, -0.05; P?=?0.01), serum total- (? -7.96?mg/dL; 95% CI, -13.75, -2.17; P?=?0.008) and LDL-cholesterol levels (? -5.88?mg/dL; 95% CI, -11.42, -0.33; P?=?0.03), and significantly increased the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) (? 0.008; 95% CI, 0.002, 0.014; P?=?0.007). Moreover, melatonin supplementation upregulated gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?) (P?=?0.004) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (P?=?0.01) compared with the placebo.

    Overall, melatonin administration for 12 weeks had beneficial effects on mental health parameters, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, QUICKI, total- and LDL-cholesterol levels, and gene expression of PPAR-? and LDLR among women with PCOS.
    Differential effects of the circadian system and circadian misalignment on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in humans.

    Glucose tolerance is lower at night and higher in the morning. Shift workers, who often eat at night and experience circadian misalignment (i.e. misalignment between the central circadian pacemaker and the environmental/behavioural cycles), have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. To determine the separate and relative impacts of the circadian system, behavioural/environmental cycles, and their interaction (i.e. circadian misalignment) on insulin sensitivity and ?-cell function, the oral minimal model was used to quantitatively assess the major determinants of glucose control in 14 healthy adults using a randomized, cross-over design with two 8-day laboratory protocols. Both protocols involved 3 baseline inpatient days with habitual sleep/wake cycles, followed by 4 inpatient days with the same nocturnal bedtime (circadian alignment) or with 12-hour inverted behavioural/environmental cycles (circadian misalignment). The data showed that circadian phase and circadian misalignment affect glucose tolerance through different mechanisms. While the circadian system reduces glucose tolerance in the biological evening compared to the biological morning mainly by decreasing both dynamic and static ?-cell responsivity, circadian misalignment reduced glucose tolerance mainly by lowering insulin sensitivity, not by affecting ?-cell function.

    Association between social jetlag food consumption and meal times in patients with obesity-related chronic diseases.

    Chronic disruption of the synchronous relationship between endogenous and exogenous circadian timing is associated with the development of obesity and metabolic disease. Social jetlag is a measure of circadian misalignment and has been identified as a risk factor for overweight and related diseases. However, the mechanisms involved in this relationship remain underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between social jetlag and food consumption at late meal timing in patients with obesity-related chronic diseases. This study included 792 individuals (73% female; age 55.9 ± 12.4 years) in which the prevalence of social jetlag (>1h) was 24.4% (n = 194). Participants with social jetlag reported late meal timing for breakfast, early afternoon snack and dinner. Individuals with social jetlag also reported a higher intake of total calories (kcal), protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and servings of meat and eggs and sweets in relation to those without social jetlag. Regarding the consumption during each meal of the day, participants with social jetlag had consumed more calories, saturated fat and cholesterol during dinner; more protein, total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol during lunch; and more total fat and saturated fat during morning snack. In addition, individuals with social jetlag had a higher risk of inadequate consumption of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake when compared with those without social jetlag. We conclude that social jetlag is associated with a poor diet and later meal times, which should be avoided in individuals with obesity-related chronic diseases. More studies are needed to confirm these findings.

    Eating behaviours and dietary intake associations with self-reported sleep duration of free-living Brazilian adults.

    Sleep duration in modern societies has been decreasing over the past decades and many environmental and behaviour factors contribute with. Evidence have shown that individuals with short sleep duration have worse eating behaviours and dietary intakes than those with adequate sleep. This study aimed to describe eating behaviours and dietary intakes of Brazilian adults and investigate their associations with self-reported sleep duration encompassing aspects of chrono-nutrition. Demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, sleep duration and dietary data were obtained from an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire of the cross-sectional population-based study, 2015 ISA-Capital, (n?=?1081 adults, ?20y). The independent associations between sleep duration (categories: ?6?h, 7-8?h, and ?9?h) and dietary variables were assessed after adjustment for covariates. Employment status, physical activity, number of chronic diseases and day of recalled intake were significantly associated with sleep duration categories (p?<?0.05). Short duration sleepers (?6?h) showed the largest probabilities of eating breakfast and snacks. Snacks contributed to 24% of total energy intake and provided the largest amounts of total and added sugar than other eating occasions among short duration sleepers. Long duration sleepers (?9?h) exhibited lower probability of consumption of the three main meals, lower energy and nutrient intakes in the morning, lower eating frequency and shorter eating period. Irrespective of sleep duration, the largest contribution to total energy intake was in the afternoon (43-46%), followed by the evening (30-32%) and morning (22-25%) periods. In conclusion, sleep duration was associated with different dietary intakes and eating behaviours among Brazilian adults. The largest energy intakes in the afternoon and evening periods signalize the relevance to consider the timing of food consumption aside sleep duration as a target to nutritional counseling for prevention of circadian misalignment and related metabolic

    MARCH 7, 2019
    A television in the bedroom?

    Too much time in front of the bedroom TV deprives the child of more enriching developmental activities and may explain, in part, less optimal body mass, poor eating habits and socio-emotional difficulties as a teenager, says the study, published Dec. 26 in Pediatric Research.

    "The early years are a critical period in a child's development," said study author Linda Pagani, a professor at UdeM's School of Psycho-Education, who will be discussing her study today at the International Convention of Psychological Science, in Paris.

    "Intuitively, parents know that how their children spend their leisure time will impact their well-being over the long term," said Pagani. "And with TV being their most common pastime, it's clear that the many hours they spend in front of the screen is having an effect on their growth and development, especially if the TV is in a private place like the bedroom."

    With their attention diverted, children risk not having enough physical and social interactions to promote proper physical and socio-emotional development, Pagani said. "To test that hypothesis, we longitudinally followed a birth cohort to examine whether there was a link between having a bedroom TV at age 4, during the neurodevelopmentally critical preschool period, and later physical, mental, and social problems in early adolescence. Our goal was to eliminate any pre-existing conditions the children or families had that could bias our results."

    Pagani and her team analyzed Canadian birth cohort data of 1,859 Quebec children born between the spring of 1997 and the spring of 1998, part of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development coordinated by the Institut de la statistique du Québec.

    Spending too much time watching TV in their room can harm preschoolers' development, an Université de Montréal study finds.

    To assess their health at age 13, independent examiners measured the childrens' body mass index; adolescents also reported their intake of unhealthy foods. To measure psychological problems, teachers rated how much emotional stress the children faced; the teens also completed a short version of the Children's Depression Inventory. For social problems, teachers reported on how the kids got along with their peers and whether they were bullied. All these measures are good predictors of later physical and mental health in adulthood.

    Significantly higher body mass index

    The study's results were clear: having a TV in the bedroom at age 4 made it more likely the child would later have a significantly higher body mass index, more unhealthy eating habits, lower levels of sociability, and higher levels of emotional distress, depressive symptoms, victimization and physical aggression, regardless of individual and family factors that would have predisposed them to such problems.

    "The location of the TV seems to matter," Pagani said. "Having private access to screen time in the bedroom during the preschool years does not bode well for long-term health. The children in our study were born at a time when television was the only screen in the bedroom. Today, given the portability of digital devices and the constant switching from one device to another, the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics clearly have reason to encourage screen-free zones and screen-free locations at home, especially given the implications for the growth and development of children. Our research supports a strong stance for parental guidelines on the availability and accessibility of TVs and other devices."
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 09-03-19 o 20:43
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  6. #666
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    Naukowy odkryli, że niebieski podnosi kortyzol

    Blue-enriched white light to wake you up in the morning

    Here is good news for those who have difficulty with morning alertness. A research team proposed that a blue-enriched LED light can effectively help people overcome morning drowsiness. This study will provide the basis for major changes in future lighting strategies and thereby help create better indoor environments.

    Here is a good news for those of who have difficulty with morning alertness. A KAIST research team proposed that a blue-enriched LED light can effectively help people overcome morning drowsiness. This study will provide the basis for major changes in future lighting strategies and thereby help create better indoor environments.

    Considerable research has been devoted to unmasking circadian rhythms. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine went to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael W. Young for unveiling the molecular mechanisms that control circadian rhythms. In particular, the relationship between light and its physiological effects has been investigated since the discovery of a novel, third type of photoreceptor in the human retina in the early 2000s. Rods and cones regulate visual effects, while the third type, photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, regulate a large variety of biological and behavioral processes including melatonin and cortisol secretion, alertness, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

    Initial studies on light sources have shown that blue monochromatic, fully saturated lights are effective for stimulating physiological responses, but the relative effectiveness of commercially available white light sources is less well understood. Moreover, the research was more focused on the negative effects of blue light; for instance, when people are exposed to blue light at night, they have trouble achieving deep sleep because the light restrains melatonin secretion.

    However, Professor Hyeon-Jeong Suk and Professor Kyungah Choi from the Department of Industrial Design and their team argue that the effects of blue-enriched morning light on physiological responses are time dependent, and that it has positive effects on melatonin levels and the subjective perception of alertness, mood, and visual comfort compared with warm white light.

    The team conducted an experiment with 15 university students. They investigated whether an hour of morning light exposure with different chromaticity would affect their physiological and subjective responses differently. The decline of melatonin levels was significantly greater after the exposure to blue-enriched white light in comparison with warm white light.

    Professor Suk said, "Light takes a huge part of our lives since we spend most of our time indoors. Light is one of the most powerful tools to affect changes in how we perceive and experience the environment around us."

    Professor Choi added, "When we investigate all of the psychological and physiological effects of light, we see there is much more to light than just efficient quantities. I believe that human-centric lighting strategies could be applied to a variety of environments, including residential areas, learning environments, and working spaces to improve our everyday lives."

    This research was collaborated with Professor Hyun Jung Chung from the Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology.

    naprawa DNA:

    Prof. Appelbaum. "Sleep gives an opportunity to reduce DNA damage accumulated in the brain during wakefulness."
    March 5, 2019
    Sleep tight! Researchers identify the beneficial role of sleep

    Why do animals sleep? Why do humans "waste" a third time of their lives sleeping? Throughout evolution sleep has remained universal and essential to all organisms with a nervous system, including invertebrates such as flies, worms, and even jellyfish. But the reason why animals sleep -- despite the continuous threat of predators -- still remains a mystery, and is considered among the biggest unanswered questions in life sciences.

    In a new study, published today in the journal Nature Communications, researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel reveal a novel and unexpected function of sleep that they believe could explain how sleep and sleep disturbances affect brain performance, aging and various brain disorders.

    Using 3D time-lapse imaging techniques in live zebrafish, the researchers were able to define sleep in a single chromosome resolution and show, for the first time, that single neurons require sleep in order to perform nuclear maintenance.

    DNA damage can be caused by many processes including radiation, oxidative stress, and even neuronal activity. DNA repair systems within each cell correct this damage. The current work shows that during wakefulness, when chromosome dynamics are low, DNA damage consistently accumulates and can reach unsafe levels.

    The role of sleep is to increase chromosome dynamics, and normalize the levels of DNA damage in each single neuron. Apparently, this DNA maintenance process is not efficient enough during the online wakefulness period and requires an offline sleep period with reduced input to the brain in order to occur. "It's like potholes in the road," says Prof. Lior Appelbaum, of Bar-Ilan University's Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences and Gonda (Goldschmied) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, who led the study. "Roads accumulate wear and tear, especially during daytime rush hours, and it is most convenient and efficient to fix them at night, when there is light traffic."

    Appelbaum calls the accumulation of DNA damage the "price of wakefulness." He and his doctoral student David Zada, first author of the study, as well as co-authors, Dr. Tali Lerer-Goldshtein, Dr. Irina Bronshtein, and Prof. Yuval Garini, hypothesized that sleep consolidates and synchronizes nuclear maintenance within individual neurons, and set out to confirm this theory.

    Their discovery was achieved thanks to the characteristics of the zebrafish model. With their absolute transparency, and a brain very similar to humans, zebrafish are a perfect organism in which to study single cell within a live animal under physiological conditions. Using a high resolution microscope, the movement of DNA and nuclear proteins within the cell -- inside the fish -- can be observed while the fish are awake and asleep. The researchers were particularly surprised to find that chromosomes are more active at night, when the body rests, but this increased activity enables the efficiency of the repair to DNA damage.

    The results establish chromosome dynamics as a potential marker for defining single sleeping cells and propose that the restorative function of sleep is nuclear maintenance. "We've found a causal link between sleep, chromosome dynamics, neuronal activity, and DNA damage and repair with direct physiological relevance to the entire organism," says Prof. Appelbaum. "Sleep gives an opportunity to reduce DNA damage accumulated in the brain during wakefulness."

    "Despite the risk of reduced awareness to the environment, animals -- ranging from jellyfish to zebrafish to humans -- have to sleep to allow their neurons to perform efficient DNA maintenance, and this is possibly the reason why sleep has evolved and is so conserved in the animal kingdom," concludes Prof. Appelbaum.

    Short sleep duration is a risk of incident nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a population-based longitudinal study.

    In this historical cohort study of 12,306 participants (5,848 men and 6,458 women), we investigated the effect of sleep duration on incident NAFLD. NAFLD was defined as having fatty liver diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography in the participants who consumed ethanol less than 30 g/day for men and 20 g/day for women. We divided the participants into four groups according to sleep duration: >7, >6-7, >5-6, and </=5h. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to investigate the effect of sleep duration on incident NAFLD, adjusting for age, body mass index categories, alanine aminotransferase, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, smoking status, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure, exercise.

    During the median 6.8-year follow-up for men and the 7.0-year follow-up duration for women, 2,280 participants (1,581 men and 699 women) developed NAFLD. In Cox proportional hazards models, sleep duration of </=5 h in both men and women were revealed to be a significant risk for incident NAFLD, compared to men and women with a sleep duration of >7 h (men: hazard ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.72, p=0.002; women; 1.46, 1.05-2.04, p=0.023).

    This is the first study showing that short sleep duration was a risk factor for incident NAFLD.
    Bakterie jelitowe mogą komunikować się z naszym DNA

    Zgodnie z wynikami badania opublikowanego na łamach pisma „Cell”, bakterie zasiedlające jelita są w stanie w specyficzny sposób komunikować się z naszym DNA, tworząc unikatowy język. Ma to związek z wydzielaniem przez nie molekuł tlenku azotu.

    Flora jelitowa żołądka jest niezwykle kompleksową materią i wielu badaczy stara się odnaleźć coraz to nowe i nietypowe substancje produkowane przez mikrobiom, które mogłyby wpływać na ludzkie zdrowie. Ogrom populacji bakterii jelitowych i jego relacja z gospodarzem sugerują, że zachodzi między nimi komunikacja, którą można zidentyfikować — przekonują autorzy badania.
    przypominam, że UV dociera do nawet do jelita grubego:


    The health benefits of UV radiation exposure through vitamin D production or non-vitamin D pathways. Blood pressure and cardiovascular disease

    Naukowcy z Uniwersytetu w Edynburgu odkryli, że wystawienie na oddziaływanie ultrafioletu obniża ciśnienie krwi. Zespół wyjaśnia, że promieniowanie UV wpływa na wydzielanie tlenku azotu, który wywołuje rozkurcz mięśniówki gładkiej naczyń.

    W eksperymencie wzięło udział 24 ochotników. Poproszono ich o spędzenie 20 min pod lampami do opalania. Podczas 1. sesji oddziaływały na nich zarówno promienie UV, jak i ciepło. W czasie 2. zablokowano ultrafiolet, dlatego skórę jedynie rozgrzewano.
    Okazało się, że po ekspozycji na promieniowanie UV ciśnienie spadło, a jego niższe wartości utrzymywały się nawet przez godzinę. Przy drugim scenariuszu ciśnienie także spadło, lecz później szybko wróciło do pierwotnej wartości.

    Testy laboratoryjne zademonstrowały, że komórki wystawione na oddziaływanie UV uwalniały NO. Szef zespołu dr Richard Weller podkreśla, że zanim zmienimy zalecenia dotyczące czasu przebywania na słońcu i zaczniemy zalecać nadciśnieniowcom opalanie, trzeba przeprowadzić dalsze badania. Obecnie planujemy przyjrzeć się relatywnym ryzykom chorób serca i nowotworów skóry przy różnych czasach ekspozycji słonecznej.,18037

    będą przy mikroflorze przypomianm również o połączeniu:

    Stymulacja magnetyczna mózgu odchudza via mikrobiom

    Przezczaszkowa głęboka stymulacja magnetyczna (ang. deep transcranial magnetic stimulation, dTMS) mózgu pozwala otyłym ludziom schudnąć, zmieniając skład mikroflory ich jelit.

    Najnowsze badanie bazowało na wcześniejszych wynikach tych samych badaczy, które pokazały, że u otyłych dTMS zmniejsza zachcianki i wywołuje utratę wagi. Naukowcy podkreślają, że dTMS nie wymaga operacji czy implantacji elektrod. Na skórze głowy umieszcza się po prostu cewkę elektromagnetyczną. W USA dTMS wykorzystuje się do leczenia głębokiej depresji, ale w innych krajach bada się jej ewentualne zastosowanie w innych chorobach, zwłaszcza uzależnieniu.

    Potrzebujemy nowych, skutecznych metod leczenia otyłości. Mimo różnych środków zaradczych oraz interwencji terapeutycznych nie udało się bowiem zapobiec osiągnięciu przez otyłość rozmiarów epidemii - podkreśla prof. Livio Luzi z Uniwersytetu w Mediolanie. Endokrynolog dodaje, że naukowcy wiedzą, że niesprawny mikrobiom może zmienić mózgowe sygnały dot. apetytu czy sytości. Włosi postanowili więc sprawdzić, czy dTMS poprawi skład mikroflory u otyłych pacjentów, a jeśli tak, za pośrednictwem jakich mechanizmów.

    W studium wzięło udział 3 mężczyzn i 11 kobiet w wieku od 22 do 65 lat. Ich BMI wynosiło 30-45, co oznacza otyłość. Ochotników wylosowano do 2 grup. Przez 5 tygodni przechodzili oni 15 sesji albo dTMS wyspy i kory przedczołowej, albo symulowanej stymulacji. Przed i po zakończeniu eksperymentu badani dostarczali próbki kału (w ten sposób określano skład mikrobiomu).

    Oprócz tego mierzono stężenie glukozy, insuliny, hormonów przysadki i różnych neuroprzekaźników, w tym noradrenaliny. To ważne, bo hormony przysadki odgrywają kluczową rolę w regulacji łaknienia, zaś ostatnie badania wykazały, że noradrenalina i inne neuroprzekaźniki oddziałują na skład mikrobiomu.

    Okazało się, że po 5 tygodniach osoby z grupy dTMS straciły ponad 3% masy ciała i ponad 4% masy tłuszczowej (znacznie więcej niż grupa kontrolna).

    Badania kału zademonstrowały, że u ludzi poddawanych stymulacji magnetycznej znacząco wzrosła liczebność gatunków bakterii o właściwościach przeciwzapalnych. U grupy kontrolnej nie zaszły żadne istotne klinicznie zmiany składu mikroflory jelit.

    Luzi dodaje, że zmiana liczebności innych gatunków bakterii korelowała z poprawą parametrów hormonalnych i metabolicznych, w tym glukozy, insuliny, kilku hormonów przysadki i noradrenaliny.

    Nasze badanie pokazuje, że dTMS zwalcza otyłość, oddziałując na oś jelitowo-mózgową.
    było ale w PL:

    Dzieci wychowujące się w otoczeniu zieleni są nawet o 55 proc. mniej narażone na rozwój zaburzeń psychicznych w późniejszym życiu – czytamy na łamach prestiżowego czasopisma „PNAS”.
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  7. #667
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    ryba psuja się od głowy

    MARCH 11, 2019
    Smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes and obesity each linked to unhealthy brains

    Factors that influence the health of our blood vessels, such as smoking, high blood and pulse pressures, obesity and diabetes, are linked to less healthy brains, according to research published in the European Heart Journal today.

    The study examined the associations between seven vascular risk factors and differences in the structures of parts of the brain. The strongest links were with areas of the brain known to be responsible for our more complex thinking skills, and which deteriorate during the development of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.

    The researchers, led by Dr. Simon Cox, a senior research associate at the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology at the University of Edinburgh (UK), examined MRI scans of the brains of 9,772 people, aged between 44 and 79, who were enrolled in the UK Biobank study—one of the largest groups of people from the general population to have data available on brain imaging as well as general health and medical information. All had been scanned by a single scanner in Cheadle, Manchester, and most of the participants were from the north-west of England. This is the world's largest single-scanner study of multiple vascular risk factors and structural brain imaging.

    The researchers looked for associations between brain structure and one or more vascular risk factors, which included smoking, high blood pressure, high pulse pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, and obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio. These have all been linked to complications with the blood supply to the brain, potentially leading to reduced blood flow and the abnormal changes seen in Alzheimer's disease.

    They found that, with the exception of high cholesterol levels, all of the other vascular risk factors were linked to greater brain shrinkage, less grey matter (tissue found mainly on the surface of the brain) and less healthy white matter (tissue in deeper parts of the brain). The more vascular risk factors a person had, the poorer was their brain health.

    Dr. Cox said: "The large UK Biobank sample allowed us to take a comprehensive look at how each factor was related to many aspects of brain structure. We found that higher vascular risk is linked to worse brain structure, even in adults who were otherwise healthy. These links were just as strong for people in middle-age as they were for those in later life, and the addition of each risk factor increased the size of the association with worse brain health.

    "Importantly, the associations between risk factors and brain health and structure were not evenly spread across the whole brain; rather, the areas affected were mainly those known to be linked to our more complex thinking skills and to those areas that show changes in dementia and 'typical' Alzheimer's disease. Although the differences in brain structure were generally quite small, these are only a few possible factors of a potentially huge number of things that might affect brain ageing."

    Smoking, high blood pressure and diabetes were the three vascular risk factors that showed the most consistent associations across all types of brain tissue types measured. High cholesterol levels were not associated with any differences in the MRI scans.

    To quantify the size of the differences they observed, Dr. Cox explained: "We compared people with the most vascular risk factors with those who had none, matching them for head size, age and sex. We found that, on average, those with the highest vascular risk had around 18ml, or nearly 3%, less volume of grey matter, and one-and-a-half times the damage to their white matter—the brain's connective tissue—compared to people who had the lowest risk; 18ml is slightly more than a large tablespoon-full, or a bit less than a small, travel-sized toothpaste tube."

    He said that the findings showed the potential of making lifestyle changes to improve brain and cognitive ageing.

    "Lifestyle factors are much easier to change than things like your genetic code—both of which seem to affect susceptibility to worse brain and cognitive ageing. Because we found the associations were just as strong in mid-life as they were in later life, it suggests that addressing these factors early might mitigate future negative effects. These findings might provide an additional motivation to improve vascular health beyond respiratory and cardiovascular benefits."

    Limitations of the study include the fact that it does not include people over the age of 79 and that UK Biobank participants tend to live in less deprived areas, which may restrict how the findings can be generalised to other populations. As the researchers were measuring brain structures only, and were not carrying out functional brain imaging or tests of thinking skills, they cannot show in this study how the changes in brain structure might impact cognitive function, but other studies have shown the relationship between increased numbers of vascular risk factors and worse or declining thinking skills, and dementia.

    Now the researchers plan to measure the links between vascular risk factors and thinking skills in the UK Biobank participants and in other groups too. In addition, they are following older people, and carrying out multiple scans and tests of thinking skills. They hope this will tell them more about the role that vascular risk factors play in the decline of different types of thinking skills and which areas of the brain are implicated. They also hope that the findings will motivate future work to understand the biological mechanisms through which different sources of vascular risk might be related to different brain areas and tissues.
    notabene głowy:

    Bidirectional electromagnetic control of the hypothalamus regulates feeding and metabolism

    Targeted, temporally regulated neural modulation is invaluable in determining the physiological roles of specific neural populations or circuits. Here we describe a system for non-invasive, temporal activation or inhibition of neuronal activity in vivo and its use to study central nervous system control of glucose homeostasis and feeding in mice. We are able to induce neuronal activation remotely using radio waves or magnetic fields via Cre-dependent expression of a GFP-tagged ferritin fusion protein tethered to the cation-conducting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a camelid anti-GFP antibody (anti-GFP–TRPV1)1. Neuronal inhibition via the same stimuli is achieved by mutating the TRPV1 pore, rendering the channel chloride-permeable. These constructs were targeted to glucose-sensing neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus in glucokinase–Cre mice, which express Cre in glucose-sensing neurons2. Acute activation of glucose-sensing neurons in this region increases plasma glucose and glucagon, lowers insulin levels and stimulates feeding, while inhibition reduces blood glucose, raises insulin levels and suppresses feeding. These results suggest that pancreatic hormones function as an effector mechanism of central nervous system circuits controlling blood glucose and behaviour. The method we employ obviates the need for permanent implants and could potentially be applied to study other neural processes or used to regulate other, even dispersed, cell types
    Mediterranean diet boosts endurance exercise within days, study finds

    Researchers have found that eating a Mediterranean diet can improve athletes' endurance exercise performance after just four days.

    Researchers at Saint Louis University have found that eating a Mediterranean diet can improve athletes' endurance exercise performance after just four days.

    In a small study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition, investigators found that participants ran a 5K six percent faster after eating a Mediterranean diet than after eating a Western diet. Researchers found no difference between the two diets in performance in anaerobic exercise tests.

    The Mediterranean diet includes whole fruits and vegetables, nuts, olive oil and whole grains, and avoids red and processed meats, dairy, trans and saturated fats and refined sugars.

    By comparison, the Western diet is characterized by low intake of fruit, vegetables and unrefined or minimally processed oils and high intakes of trans and saturated fats, dairy, refined sugars, refined and highly processed vegetable oils, sodium and processed foods.

    Senior researcher Edward Weiss, Ph.D., professor of nutrition and dietetics at SLU, says the Mediterranean diet is well-established as having numerous health benefits. He and his team hypothesized that the diet's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, more alkaline pH and dietary nitrates might lead to improved exercise performance.

    "Many individual nutrients in the Mediterranean diet improve exercise performance immediately or within a few days. Therefore, it makes sense that a whole dietary pattern that includes these nutrients is also quick to improve performance," Weiss said. "However, these benefits were also quickly lost when switching to the Western diet, highlighting the importance of long-term adherence to the Mediterranean diet."

    The study enrolled seven women and four men in a randomized-sequence crossover study. The participants ran five kilometers on a treadmill on two occasions -- once after four days on a Mediterranean diet and on another occasion after four days on a Western diet, with a period of nine to 16 days separating the two tests.

    Weiss says the study found the 5K run time was six percent faster after the Mediterranean diet than the Western diet despite similar heart rates and ratings of perceived exertion.

    "This study provides evidence that a diet that is known to be good for health is also good for exercise performance," Weiss said. "Like the general population, athletes and other exercise enthusiasts commonly eat unhealthy diets. Now they have an additional incentive to eat healthy."

    Other researchers on the study include Michelle Baker, Kristen DeCesare, Abby Johnson, Kathleen Kress and Cynthia Inman.
    sałatka fit z maka vs rzeczywistość

    W ciągu 30 lat fast foody stały się bardziej niezdrowe

    Analiza oferty restauracji typu fast food z 30 lat pokazała, że choć menu stało się bardziej rozbudowane, wzrosła zawartość soli i kaloryczność, a porcje stały się większe.

    Analiza, której wyniki ukazały się w Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, objęła ofertę 10 najpopularniejszych restauracji fastfoodowych w USA w 1986, 1991 i 2016 r. Okazało się, że z biegiem lat przystawki, dodatki i desery stały się bardziej kaloryczne i zawierały więcej sodu. Poza tym w przypadku przystawek i deserów wzrosła wielkość porcji.

    Naukowcy wykazali, że choć różnorodność przystawek, dodatków i deserów powiększyła się przez 30 lat aż o 226%, to nowe i pojawiające się czasowo produkty/dania były przeważnie mniej zdrowe niż te dostępne w ofercie stałej (obecne podczas całego studium).

    Nasze badanie daje pewien wgląd w to, w jaki sposób fast food może napędzać utrzymujący się w USA problem otyłości i powiązanych z nią chorób przewlekłych. Mimo wielkiej różnorodności oferowanych dań, wśród których można, oczywiście, znaleźć zdrowsze opcje, z czasem ogólna kaloryczność, wielkość porcji i zawartość sodu pogorszyły się, czyli wzrosły, i pozostały wysokie - podkreśla dr Megan A. McCrory z Uniwersytetu Bostońskiego.

    Zespół McCrory analizował zmiany, jakie zaszły między 1986 a 2016 r. w zakresie energetyczności (kaloryczności), wielkości porcji, gęstości energetycznej (liczby kilodżuli na jednostkę masy pokarmu), zawartości sodu, żelaza i wapnia w 1) przystawkach, 2) dodatkach i 3) deserach oferowanych w 10 najpopularniejszych restauracjach typu fast food w USA (popularność określano w oparciu o sprzedaż). Dane pozyskano z wydań The Fast Food Guide Michaela F. Jacobsona i Sarah Fritschner z lat 1986 i 1991. W 2016 r. wykorzystano informacje ze źródeł internetowych.

    Ustalono, że ogólna liczba przystawek, deserów i dodatków wzrosła o 226% lub, inaczej mówiąc, o 22,9 produktu rocznie. Kaloryczność podniosła się we wszystkich 3 badanych kategoriach dań. Największe wzrosty odnotowano w przypadku deserów (62 kcal na dekadę). Za nimi uplasowały się przystawki (30 kcal na dekadę). Wzrosty te wydają się wynikiem głównie powiększania porcji, które było istotne statystycznie właśnie dla przystawek (13 gramów na dekadę) i deserów (24 gramy na dekadę). Zawartość sodu powiększyła się znacząco we wszystkich 3 analizowanych kategoriach. Dane nt. wapnia i żelaza były dostępne w 4 z 10 uwzględnionych restauracji. Zawartość wapnia wzrosła znacząco w przystawkach i deserach, a poziom żelaza powiększył się znacząco w deserach.

    McCrory cieszą wzrosty dotyczące wapnia i żelaza, gdyż są one istotne dla masy kostnej i zapobiegania anemii. Podkreśla jednak, że istnieją lepsze ich źródła z niższą zawartością sodu i kalorii.
    Diety niskowęglowodanowe wiążą się z wyższym ryzykiem migotania przedsionków

    Dieta niskowęglowodanowa może zwiększyć ryzyko migotania przedsionków (ang. atrial fibrillation, AF).

    Osoby, które regularnie pozyskują z węglowodanów mniej niż 45% kalorii, zapadają na migotanie przedsionków o 18% częściej niż ludzie, którzy spożywają umiarkowane ilości węglowodanów (taką postać ma ok. 45-52% przyjmowanych przez nich kalorii).

    Chińscy naukowcy podkreślają, że ryzyko AF było podwyższone bez względu na rodzaj białek czy tłuszczów, którymi zastępowano węglowodany.

    Zespół dr. Xiaodonga Zhuanga z Sun Yat-Sen University przeanalizował dane z badania amerykańskich Narodowych Instytutów Zdrowia, które objęło niemal 14 tys. osób. Na początku studium nikt nie miał migotania przedsionków. Losy ochotników śledzono średnio przez 22 lata. W tym okresie AF wystąpiło u ok. 1900 ludzi.

    Wszyscy wypełniali kwestionariusze żywieniowe, dzięki czemu akademicy mogli ich podzielić na 3 grupy: o niskim, umiarkowanym i dużym spożyciu węglowodanów. Pierwsza grupa spożywała z węglowodanami mniej niż 45% kalorii, druga między 45 a 52%, a trzecia powyższej 52%.

    Uzyskane wyniki pasują do wcześniejszych ustaleń innych naukowców, sugerując, że zarówno nisko-, jak i wysokowęglowodanowe diety są powiązane z wyższym ryzkiem przedwczesnego zgonu.

    Dr Laurence Epstein z Northwell Health, który komentował wyniki chińskich kolegów, dodaje, że choć na razie można mówić tylko o korelacji, a nie związku przyczynowo-skutkowym, istnieje kilka wyjaśnień, czemu dieta niskowęglowodanowa miałaby powodować AF. Jak tłumaczy, diety niskowęglowodanowe dają tak szybki spadek wagi, bo wiążą się z usuwaniem płynów z organizmu, a odwodnienie może prowadzić do migotania przedsionków. Oprócz tego naukowiec wspomina o nieprawidłowościach elektrolitowych, które także wpływają na rytm serca i o niższym spożyciu warzyw, owoców i pełnych ziaren, które zmniejszają stan zapalny (stan zapalny powiązano z AF).

    Epstein dodaje, że może liczyć się również przyczyna, dla której ktoś przechodzi na niskowęglowodanową dietę. Możesz przestrzegać niskowęglowodanowej diety, jeśli jesteś diabetykiem i próbujesz kontrolować poziom cukru we krwi. Cukrzyca jest zaś czynnikiem ryzyka AF.

    Szesnastego marca Zhuang przedstawi swoje ustalenia na konferencji Amerykańskiego College'u Kardiologii w Nowym Orleanie.
    Zarówno Zhuang, jak i komentatorzy podkreślają, że by określić mechanizmy zaobserwowanego zjawsika, należy przeprowadzić dalsze pogłębione badania. Wszyscy wskazują też, że należy pamiętać o tym, by dieta była zrównoważona.
    Mikrobiom odgrywa ważną rolę w termogenezie

    Podczas ekspozycji na zimno mikrobiom jelit pomaga podtrzymać temperaturę głęboką ciała.

    Rolę mikrobiomu w termoregulacji ujawnił zespół prof. Johna R. Speakmana z Instytutu Genetyki i Biologii Rozwojowej Chińskiej Akademii Nauk.

    Gdy jest zimno, zwierzęta podtrzymują swoją temperaturę dzięki spalającej tłuszcz brunatnej tkance tłuszczowej (ang. brown adipose tissue, BAT), która jest uznawana za motor termogenezy, albo na drodze przekształcania białej tkanki tłuszczowej w brunatną (brunatnienia).

    By ocenić rolę mikroflory jelitowej w aktywacji BAT, naukowcy stosowali różne koktajle antybiotyków. Po wyeliminowaniu bakterii okazało się, że termoregulacja uległa upośledzeniu. Wyniki potwierdzono na myszach pozbawionych kontaktu z mikroorganizmami, czyli aksenicznych (ang. germ free mice, GF).

    Autorzy publikacji z pisma Cell Reports dowiedli, że wyeliminowanie mikrobiomu tłumiło wzrost ekspresji termogeniny (UCP1, ang. uncoupling protein 1, rozsprzęgacza protonów) w BAT i ograniczało brunatnienie białej tkanki tłuszczowej; UCP1 jest białkiem występującym w błonie mitochondriów brunatnej tkanki tłuszczowej.

    Naukowcy dywagują, że pod nieobecność "sprawnego" mikrobiomu zwierzęta nie są w stanie strawić wystarczającej ilości pokarmu, by zaspokoić zwiększone zapotrzebowanie energetyczne w chłodnych warunkach. Wpływ na BAT jest więc w pewien sposób wtórny.

    Chińczycy wykazali też jednak, że podanie myszom maślanów - krótkołańcuchowych kwasów tłuszczowych wytwarzanych przez bakterie - zwiększa wydajność termogenną myszy po antybiotykoterapii. To sugeruje, że mikrobiom pełni ważną rolę sygnalizacyjną w procesie stymulowania termogenezy wywołanej niską temperaturą.

    Choć autorzy artykułu przestrzegają, że na razie badania prowadzono na myszach i należy zachować ostrożność przy odnoszeniu wyników do ludzi, jednocześnie wskazują na kilka interesujących możliwości. Podkreślają np., że u seniorów często występują problemy z odpowiednią reakcją termoregulacyjną na chłód, przez co są oni bardziej narażeni na hipotermię. Rodzi się więc pytanie, czy związane z wiekiem zmiany mikrobiomu przyczyniają się do tego zjawiska i czy ich modulacja może przynieść starszym osobom korzyści.
    i na koniec dla kochanej mikrofalowej geriatrii bf, co ledwo wstaje z łózka, a rozruch zajmuje wiele godzin:

    Wstaje o 6 rano i gra w Othella. Oto najstarsza osoba na świecie

    116-letnia Japonka Kane Tanaka z Fukuoki, największego miasta wyspy Kiusiu, została uznana przez Księgę rekordów Guinnessa za najstarszą żyjącą osobą na świecie. Uroczystość nadania tytułu odbyła się w domu opieki w Fukuoce

    Kane Tanaka urodziła się 2 stycznia 1903 roku. Przyszła na świat w prefekturze Fukuoka jako siódme dziecko wśród dziewięciorga rodzeństwa. W 1922 wyszła za mąż za Hideo Tanakę. Małżeństwo miało czworo dzieci. Jedno Tanakowie adoptowali. Japonka ma pięcioro wnuków i ośmioro prawnuków.

    Według Księgi rekordów Guinnessa pani Tanaka zwykle wstaje o godz. 6 rano, a po południu często powtarza matematykę. Jedną z jej ulubionych rozrywek jest gra planszowa Othello, w którą często wygrywa z pracownikami domu opieki, gdzie obecnie przebywa.

    Pytana, co było najszczęśliwszą chwilą w jej życiu, odpowiada: "Teraz".

    W Japonii żyje obecnie blisko 70 tys. stulatków, z których zdecydowana większość (88,1 proc.) to kobiety - informowało jesienią ub. roku japońskie ministerstwo zdrowia. W 2017 roku średnia długość życia w Japonii wyniosła 87,2 lat dla kobiet i 81 dla mężczyzn.
    Czytaj więcej na
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 11-03-19 o 09:40
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  8. #668
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477

    11 marca - „Jak słyszy bardzo młody mózg i co jeśli nie słyszy?”
    Dr Monika Matusiak (1. Instytut Fizjologii i Patologii Słuchu, Warszawa, 2. Światowe Centrum Słuchu, Kajetany)

    12 marca - „Dopalacze - niekończąca się historia”
    Prof. dr hab. Jolanta B. Zawilska (Zakład Farmakodynamiki, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi)

    13 marca - „Jak pobudzić sieci nerwowe w zdrowym i uszkodzonym rdzeniu kręgowym?”
    Prof. dr hab. Małgorzata Skup (Instytut Biologii Doświadczalnej im. M. Nenckiego PAN w Warszawie)

    14 marca - „Wpływ aktywności fizycznej na funkcjonowanie mózgu”
    Prof. dr hab. Filip Rybakowski (Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Poznaniu)

    15 marca - „Choroby rzadkie, czyli codzienność w neurologii”
    Prof. dr hab. Joanna Pera (Katedra Neurologii UJ CM i OK Neurologii, Szpital Uniwersytecki w Krakowie)

    16 marca - „Jak neuronauka wpływała na psychiatrię i rozumienie natury człowieka”
    Dr Bogusław Habrat (Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warszawa)

    17 marca - (niedziela) „STATEK NEUROBIOLOGICZNY”
    organizowany przez Instytut Farmakologii PAN w Krakowie dzięki dotacji Dana-FENS Brain Awareness Week grant 2019 oraz objęty patronatem Polskiego Towarzystwa Badań Układu Nerwowego
    Strona internetowa Instytutu Farmakologii PAN w Krakowie:
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  9. #669
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    Cytat Zamieszczone przez htw Zobacz posta
    Dzieci wychowujące się w otoczeniu zieleni są nawet o 55 proc. mniej narażone na rozwój zaburzeń psychicznych w późniejszym życiu – czytamy na łamach prestiżowego czasopisma „PNAS”.
    MARCH 12, 2019
    Experiences of nature boost children's learning

    Spending time in nature boosts children's academic achievement and healthy development, concludes a new analysis examining hundreds of studies.

    Ming Kuo, associate professor in the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences at the University of Illinois and lead author on the Frontiers in Psychology study, says she expected the critical review to lead to more questions than answers. Instead, all signs pointed to the same outcome: "It is time to take nature seriously as a resource for learning," she says, "in fact, the trend of increasing indoor instruction in hopes of maximizing standardized test performance may be doing more harm than good."

    Kuo and her University of Minnesota co-authors found that nature boosts learning in eight distinct ways.

    "We found strong evidence that time in nature has a rejuvenating effect on attention; relieves stress; boosts self-discipline; increases physical activity and fitness; and promotes student self-motivation, enjoyment, and engagement," Kuo explains. "And all of these have been shown to improve learning."

    Moreover, nature creates a calmer, quieter, and safer setting for learning; fosters warmer, more cooperative relations among students; and affords more creative, more exploratory forms of play.

    While none of these effects is entirely new, the analysis represents the first time all of the lines of evidence have been pulled together. Collectively, the findings make a much stronger case for the importance of time in nature. They also provide an explanation for something that has been puzzling scientists in the field—why even small doses of nature sometimes have surprisingly large effects.

    The researchers say the key is seeing how these effects work together, in individual students and in classrooms.

    "If something not only makes a student more attentive, but also less stressed and more interested, then you can see how it could have a large effect on their learning. Furthermore, if you put a bunch of kids in a classroom and they're all attentive, absorbed, and interested, that sounds like a different classroom than one where they're all stressed, agitated, not getting along, etc.," says Michael Barnes, doctoral student at the University of Minnesota and co-author on the study. "So you can start to see how these large effects could make sense."

    These effects extend beyond academic achievement, according to the review. Time in nature appears to foster personal skills and qualities important for future success, and may play a critical role in helping children grow up to be environmental stewards.

    "Report after report—from independent observers as well as participants themselves—indicate beneficial shifts in perseverance, problem solving, critical thinking, leadership, teamwork, and resilience. All of these line up with skills we know are important for kids' ability to thrive in the 21st century," says Catherine Jordan, associate professor at U of M and co-author on the study.

    The analysis suggests multiple benefits of greening schoolyards and incorporating nature-based instruction in schools.

    "Even small exposures to nature are beneficial. If you're indoors, having a view of your yard as opposed to facing the wall, that makes a difference. At the same time, more is better. That's one of the things that gives us more confidence that we're seeing a real cause-and-effect relationship," Kuo says. "The bigger the dose of nature we give a person, the bigger the effect we see in them."

    troszkę o falach:

    Naukowcy demonstrują użycie ultradźwięków do zmiany odpowiedzi zapalnej i metabolicznej

    GE Research and Feinstein Institute for Medical Research bioelectronic medicine teams have demonstrated potentially breakthrough non-invasive methods to regulate dysfunction in the body's metabolic or inflammatory control systems using ultrasound.

    Stymulacja mózgu poprawia objawy depresj

    With a weak alternating electrical current sent through electrodes attached to the scalp, UNC School of Medicine researchers successfully targeted a naturally occurring electrical pattern in a specific part of the brain and markedly improved depression symptoms in about 70 percent of participants in a clinical study.

    sen i planowanie przyszłości:

    Scientists find first evidence for necessary role of the human hippocampus in planning

    A team of scientists reports finding the first evidence that the human hippocampus is necessary for future planning. Its findings, published in the journal Neuron, link its long-established role in memory with our ability to use our knowledge to map out the future effects of our actions.

    Changes in sleep duration and subsequent risk of hypertension in healthy adults

    Over 250907.5 person-years, we documented 4750 incident cases of hypertension. Both a decrease in sleep duration and persistently short sleep were associated with an elevated risk of hypertension during the subsequent 2.4 years. In analyses for relevant covariates during the exposure period, a decrease of ≥2 hours of sleep and an increase of ≥2 hours of sleep compared with no change in sleep duration were associated with a higher risk of incident hypertension in women (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–1.98) and men (HR: 1.31; 95% CI 1.10–1.56). Women with persistently shorter sleep durations compared with those who maintained 7 hours of sleep, were at greater risk of developing hypertension during the subsequent follow-up period.

    In this large study of young and middle-aged women and men, we found that individuals with either considerable changes in sleep duration or persistently short sleep were at an increased risk of incident hypertension, underscoring the importance of maintaining moderate sleep duration to prevent hypertension.

    TNF-α regulowane wschodem i zachodem - ciekawe jak u ludzi

    Circadian oscillation of TNF-α gene expression regulated by clock gene, BMAL1 and CLOCK1, in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    To date, little information is available on the effects of circadian oscillation on immune regulation in lower vertebrates, such as teleost fish. In the present study, regulation of circadian oscillation of inflammatory cytokine TNF-α gene expression by clock gene was investigated using model fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Firstly, structural analysis of clock genes was performed, which revealed that medaka BMAL1 and CLOCK1 conserve functionally important domains, such as basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and period-aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-single-minded (PAS), seen in their counterparts in other vertebrates. Expression of medaka Bmal1, Clock1, and Per1 genes was confirmed in central and peripheral tissues. Moreover, the expression of these clock genes and TNF-α genes in medaka acclimated to a 12:12 light (L) - dark (D) cycle showed circadian oscillation. In addition, higher expression of TNF-α gene was detected in medaka embryo cells (OLHdrR-e3) overexpressing Bmal1 and Clock1 genes. It was suggested that this increase was mediated by transcriptional regulation by clock proteins, which target E-box sequence in the cis-element of TNF-α gene as was detected by luciferase reporter gene assay. Moreover, in vitro head kidney stimulation with LPS at different zeitgeber time (ZT) under LD12:12 condition affected the degree of TNF-α gene expression, which shows high and low responsiveness to LPS stimulation at ZT18 and ZT10, respectively. These results suggested that fish TNF-α exhibited circadian oscillation regulated by clock proteins and its responsiveness against immune-stimulation depends on time zone.
    Longitude Position in a Time Zone and Cancer Risk in the United States

    Background: Circadian disruption is a probable human carcinogen. From the eastern to western border of a time zone, social time is equal, whereas solar time is progressively delayed, producing increased discrepancies between individuals' social and biological circadian time. Accordingly, western time zone residents experience greater circadian disruption and may be at an increased risk of cancer.

    Methods: We examined associations between the position in a time zone and age-standardized county-level incidence rates for total cancers combined and 23 specific cancers by gender using the data of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (2000–2012), including four million cancer diagnoses in white residents of 607 counties in 11 U.S. states. Log-linear regression was conducted, adjusting for latitude, poverty, cigarette smoking, and state. Bonferroni-corrected P values were used as the significance criteria.

    Results: Risk increased from east to west within a time zone for total and for many specific cancers, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (both genders) and cancers of the stomach, liver, prostate, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in men and cancers of the esophagus, colorectum, lung, breast, and corpus uteri in women.

    Conclusions: Risk increased from the east to the west in a time zone for total and many specific cancers, in accord with the circadian disruption hypothesis. Replications in analytic epidemiologic studies are warranted.

    Twoja kobieta siedzi popołudniami ze smartofonem? - lepiej ją zaktualizuj.

    Time will tell: Circadian clock dysregulation in triple negative breast cancer.

    Growing evidence now links circadian disruption (CD) to increased risk of developing multiple types of cancer, including breast cancer (BC). In the US, African-American (AA) BC patients have a higher mortality rate than European-Americans (EAs) with BC, and a prime suspect in this racially disparate burden has been the greater incidence of an aggressive and highly heterogeneous BC subtype called triple-negative BC (TNBC), among AAs. AAs are also more prone to CD as larger proportions of AAs engage in night shift work than EAs, and the chronotype of AAs makes it harder for them to adapt to CD than EAs. Although clock gene dysregulation has been shown to perturb transactivation of key cell cycle and apoptosis regulators, little is known about how clock gene mis-expression affects TNBC outcomes. This review examines the prognostic value of clock genes in TNBC, and evaluates patterns of clock gene dysregulation in the individual TNBC molecular subtypes. Better understanding of how CD contributes to TNBC biology may illuminate new paths to improving disease outcomes and reducing BC-related racial disparities.

    correlation doesn't imply causation

  10. #670
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    Molecular function for MYOD1 Gene

    Myod1 funkcjonuje jako wzmacniacz zegarowy, jest również krytycznym czynnikiem jako współczynnik ekspresji genów około dobowych w mięśniach. A po polsku zniszczenia w mięśniach po-treningowe wspaniale wzmacniają zegar

    Feb 21, 2019
    MYOD1 functions as a clock amplifier as well as a critical co-factor for downstream circadian gene expression in muscle

    In the present study we show that the master myogenic regulatory factor, MYOD1, is a positive modulator of molecular clock amplitude and functions with the core clock factors for expression of clock-controlled genes in skeletal muscle. We demonstrate that MYOD1 directly regulates the expression and circadian amplitude of the positive core clock factor Bmal1. We identify a non-canonical E-box element in Bmal1 and demonstrate that is required for full MYOD1-responsiveness. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrate that MYOD1 colocalizes with both BMAL1 and CLOCK throughout myonuclei. We demonstrate that MYOD1 and BMAL1:CLOCK work in a synergistic fashion through a tandem E-box to regulate the expression and amplitude of the muscle specific clock-controlled gene, Titin-cap (Tcap). In conclusion, these findings reveal mechanistic roles for the muscle specific transcription factor MYOD1 in the regulation of molecular clock amplitude as well as synergistic regulation of clock-controlled genes in skeletal muscle.

    2019 Mar 5
    Association Between Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Body Composition in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    All variables used in the current study were derived from the Swedish EpiHealth cohort study. Habitual sleep duration was measured by questionnaires. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance. The main outcome variables were fat mass and fat-free mass (in kg). Analysis of covariance adjusting for age, sex, fat mass in the case of fat-free mass (and vice versa), leisure time physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption was used to investigate the association between sleep duration and body composition.

    Short sleep (defined as ≤ 5 hours sleep per day) and long sleep (defined as 8 or more hours of sleep per day) were associated with lower fat-free mass and higher fat mass, compared with 6 to 7 hours of sleep duration (P< .05).

    These observations could suggest that both habitual short and long sleep may contribute to two common clinical phenotypes in middle-aged and older humans, ie, body adiposity and sarcopenia. However, the observational nature of our study does not allow for causal interpretation.

    parkinson czyli szwankowanie neuronów dopaminergicznych - nowa terapia, polegająca na podpinaniu elektrowni do prądu.

    Parkinson's treatment delivers a power-up to brain cell 'batteries'

    Our results, despite being at an early-stage, suggest the electric pulses boost batteries in the brain cells.

    można również prościej, np wyjść z domu (podpiąć się do sieci).

    Mitofusin 2 in Mature Adipocytes Controls Adiposity and Body Weight

    We found that exposure of adult animals to calorie-dense foods rapidly abolished expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a gene promoting mitochondrial fusion and mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum interactions, in white and brown fat. Mfn2 mRN was also robustly lower in obese human subjects compared with lean controls. Adipocyte-specific knockdown of Mfn2 in adult mice led to increased food intake, adiposity, and impaired glucose metabolism on standard chow as well as on a diet with high calorie content. The body weight and adiposity of mature adipocyte-specific Mfn2 knockout mice on a standard diet were similar to those of control mice on a high-fat diet. The transcriptional profile of the adipose tissue in adipocyte-specific Mfn2 knockout mice was consistent with adipocyte proliferation, increased lipogenesis at the tissue level, and decreased glucose utilization at the systemic level. These observations suggest a possible crucial role for mitochondrial dynamics in adipocytes in initiating systemic metabolic dysregulation.
    Molecular function for Mitofusin-2 Gene
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 13-03-19 o 12:18
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  11. #671
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    z cyklu oś mózg - jelita.

    Mikrobiom jelit jest zmieniony nawet miesiąc po udarze

    Skład flory bakteryjnej jelit może być inny nawet 28 dni po udarze. Ma to spore znaczenie dla procesu zdrowienia.

    Interesuje nas oś jelitowo-mózgowa, a więc to, jak jelita wpływają na mózg i na odwrót - wyjaśnia Allison Brichacek ze Szkoły Medycznej Uniwersytetu Wirginii Zachodniej.

    Wcześniejsze badania prezentowały natychmiastowy wpływ udaru na mikrobiom, nikt jednak nie sprawdzał, czy efekty te się utrzymują. By to sprawdzić, Brichacek i inni wywoływali udar u zwierząt. Uwzględnili też zdrową grupę kontrolną. Mikrobiomy porównywano 3, 14 i 28 dni po udarze. Pobrano też wycinki jelit.

    Okazało się, że 14. i 28. dnia u zwierząt po udarze występowało mniej dobrych dla zdrowia bakterii z rodziny Bifidobacteriaceae (bakterie z wchodzącego w jej skład rodzaju Bifidobacterium znajdują się np. w jogurtach). Wzrosła za to częstość innej rodziny - niekorzystnych Helicobacteraceae. Praktyczne skutki zaobserwowanych zmian nie są na razie znane.

    W modelu poudarowym obserwowano też wyższy stosunek bakterii z typu Firmicutes do Bacteriodetes; mówi się, że Firmicutes to bakterie związane z otyłością, a Bacteroidetes z beztłuszczową masą ciała. Wyższy stosunek Firmicutes do Bacteriodetes powiązano też z cukrzycą i stanem zapalnym. Po 14 dniach od udaru stosunek tych 2 typów bakterii był u zwierząt z grupy eksperymentalnej niemal 6 razy większy. Po 28 dniach spadł, ale nadal był ponad 3-krotnie wyższy niż w grupie kontrolnej.

    Oprócz tego naukowcy zauważyli, że udar powoduje nieprawidłowości jelitowe. Pod mikroskopem tkanki jelit zdrowych zwierząt przypominały uporządkowane kolonie koralowców U zwierząt po udarze dezorganizacja była zaś widoczna nawet po miesiącu. Między kosmkami jelitowymi było mniej miejsca, co utrudniało omywanie składnikami odżywczymi - opowiada Brichacek. Ich słaba cyrkulacja utrudnia regenerację po udarze.

    Jeśli okaże się, że jelito ma wpływ na naprawę mózgu, może leczenie poudarowe nie powinno koncentrować się tylko na tym, co dzieje się w mózgu. Może powinniśmy się zastanowić, co zrobić dla jelit.

    Bakterie jelitowe produkują krótkołańcuchowe kwasy tłuszczowe (SCFA), które oddziałują na funkcje mózgu. Niektóre z tych kwasów są dobre, inne złe - wyjaśnia Candice Brown. Jeśli namnażają się bakterie produkujące złe SCFA, może to mieć zły wpływ na działanie mózgu. Należy się więc zastanowić, czy 1) "pchnięcie" mikrobiomu pacjenta poudarowego w zdrowszym kierunku, np. za pomocą suplementów czy prebiotyków, pomoże zapobiec spadkowi formy poznawczej/emocjonalnej i czy 2) obniżenie stosunku Firmicutes do Bacteriodetes ułatwi spadek wagi, obniży ryzyko cukrzycy i zmniejszy ryzyko kolejnych udarów.

    W kolejnym etapie badań Brown i Brichacek chcą sprawdzić, jak zaburzenia bariery jelitowej wpływają na ośrodkowy układ nerwowy.
    sterylne warunki w dzieciństwie ?

    Early-life exposure to microbiota restricts colon cancer later in life, study finds

    Exposure to microbiota, or microorganisms such as bacteria, in the early stages of life plays a crucial role in establishing optimal conditions in the intestine that inhibit the development of colon cancer in adulthood, according to a study led by Georgia State University.

    każdy z nas ma kobietę, więc trzeba wiedzieć:

    Stress hormones promote breast cancer metastasis

    It has long been thought that stress contributes to cancer progression. Scientists from the University of Basel and the University Hospital of Basel have deciphered the molecular mechanisms linking breast cancer metastasis with increased stress hormones. In addition, they found that synthetic derivatives of stress hormones, which are frequently used as anti-inflammatory in cancer therapy, decrease the efficacy of chemotherapy. These results come from patient-derived models of breast cancer in mice and may have implications for the treatment of patients with breast cancer, as the researchers report in the scientific journal Nature.

    rybki jeść trzeba:

    14 Mar 2019
    Incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into human skeletal muscle sarcolemmal and mitochondrial membranes following 12 weeks of fish oil supplementation

    Fish oil (FO) supplementation in humans results in the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; C20:6) acid into skeletal muscle membranes. However, despite the importance of membrane composition in structure-function relationships, a paucity of information exists regarding how different muscle membranes/organelles respond to FO supplementation. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the effects 12 weeks of FO supplementation (3g EPA/2g DHA daily) on the phospholipid composition of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial fractions, as well as whole muscle responses, in healthy young males. FO supplementation increased the total phospholipid content in whole muscle (57%; p < 0.05) and the sarcolemma (38%; p = 0.05), but did not alter the content in mitochondria. The content of omega-3 FAs, EPA and DHA, were increased (+3-fold) in whole muscle, and mitochondrial membranes, and as a result the omega-6/omega-3 ratios were dramatically decreased (-3-fold), while conversely the unsaturation indexes were increased. Intriguingly, before supplementation the unsaturation index of sarcolemmal membranes was ~3 times lower (p < 0.001) than either whole muscle or mitochondrial membranes. While supplementation also increased DHA within sarcolemmal membranes, EPA was not altered, and as a result the omega-6/omega-3 ratio and unsaturation index of these membranes were not altered. All together, these data revealed that mitochondrial and sarcolemmal membranes display unique phospholipid compositions and responses to FO supplementation.
    Sens wschodu słońca,
    gdzie wylądują Twoje oczy rano, taka czeka Cie pompa (ciekawostka niezleżenie od melanopsyny).

    Rod Photoreceptor Activation Alone Defines the Release of Dopamine in the Retina

    Retinal dopamine is released by a specialized subset of amacrine cells in response to light and has a potent influence on how the retina responds to, and encodes, visual information. Here, we address the critical question of which retinal photoreceptor is responsible for coordinating the release of this neuromodulator. Although all three photoreceptor classes—rods, cones, and melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs)—have been shown to provide electrophysiological inputs to dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs), we show here that the release of dopamine is defined only by rod photoreceptors. Remarkably, this rod signal coordinates both a suppressive signal at low intensities and drives dopamine release at very bright light intensities. These data further reveal that dopamine release does not necessarily correlate with electrophysiological activity of DACs and add to a growing body of evidence that rods define aspects of retinal function at very bright light levels.

    wschód słońca spowoduje, że Twoje decyzje będą podejmowane z korzyścią dla Ciebie (często bywa odwrotnie, mimo szczerych chęci, sprawa dopaminy)


    Researchers find breathing-in before doing a task might make you better at doing it

    A team of researchers at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, has found that people sometimes do better on tasks if they inhale first. In their paper published in the journal Nature Human Behavior, the group describes experiments they carried out with volunteers and what they found.

    Sports fans have grown used to seeing athletes take a big breath before they execute a task such as serving a tennis ball or carrying out a play on the gridiron. Others have likely done the same before embarking on a task themselves, such as taking a final exam. It is an activity that has come to be associated with diving into a difficult task. In this new effort, the researchers have found that inhaling before carrying out certain tasks can actually help people do better on them.
    Positive association of plasma leptin with sleep quality in obese type 2 diabetes patients.

    Using unadjusted analyses, the obese type 2 diabetes patients, but not their non-obese counterparts, showed a positive correlation between plasma leptin levels and a parameter for deep sleep assessed by delta power during the first sleep cycle. Multivariate analysis showed that plasma leptin levels were positively associated with delta power, but not with the total sleep time, after adjusting for potential confounders including age, body mass index and the apnea-hypopnea index, in the obesity group. However, neither delta power nor total sleep time was associated with leptin in the non-obesity group.

    Plasma leptin levels are independently associated with sleep quality in obese, but not in non-obese, type 2 diabetes patients. The present study indicates a favorable relationship between leptin and sleep quality in obese type 2 diabetes patients.

    Green tea cuts obesity, health risks in mice

    Green tea cut obesity and a number of inflammatory biomarkers linked with poor health in a new study.

    Mice fed a diet of 2 percent green tea extract fared far better than those that ate a diet without it, a finding that has prompted an upcoming study of green tea's potential benefits in people at high risk of diabetes and heart disease.

    The benefits seen in the new study, published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, appear to stem from improved gut health, including more beneficial microbes in the intestines of the mice and less permeability in the intestinal wall -- a condition typically called "leaky gut" in people.

    "This study provides evidence that green tea encourages the growth of good gut bacteria, and that leads to a series of benefits that significantly lower the risk of obesity," said Richard Bruno, the study's lead author and a professor of human nutrition at The Ohio State University.

    Niedobór witaminy B12 zwiększa ryzyko zakażenia 2 groźnymi bakteriami

    Niedobór witaminy B12 zwiększa ryzyko zakażenia 2 niebezpiecznymi patogenami: pałeczką ropy błękitnej (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) i paciorkowcem kałowym (Enterococcus faecalis).

    Badania prowadzono na nicieniach Caenorhabditis elegans, które tak jak ludzie nie potrafią wytwarzać witaminy B12 i muszą ją pozyskiwać z pożywienia.

    Zespół z Rice University odkrył, że nicienie z niedoborem B12 cechuje obniżona zdolność metabolizowania aminokwasów rozgałęzionych (ang. branched-chain amino acid, BCAA). Prowadzi ona do akumulacji produktów częściowego rozkładu (propionianów), które niekorzystnie wpływają na mitochondria.

    Naukowcy podkreślają, że w USA co najmniej 10% dorosłych ma niedobór witaminy B12, a jego ryzyko rośnie z wiekiem. W Wielkiej Brytanii niedobory witaminy B12 występują u 20% populacji osób w wieku 65+.

    Wykorzystywaliśmy C. elegans do badania wpływu diety na gospodarza i odkryliśmy, że jeden rodzaj pokarmu dramatycznie zwiększa oporność na liczne stresory - np. gorąco i wolne rodniki - oraz patogeny - opowiada prof. Natasha Kirienko.

    Po raz pierwszy akademicy wpadli na ślad tego zjawiska podczas eksperymentów mających pomóc w ustaleniu mechanizmów patogenności P. aeruginosa. Jako organizm modelowy Amerykanie wykorzystali właśnie C. elegans. Tak jak w wielu innych laboratoriach, nicienie karmiono pałeczkami okrężnicy (Escherichia coli).

    Odkryliśmy, że przestawianie się między 2 szczepami E. coli - OP50 i HT115 - drastycznie zmieniało tolerancję stresu nicieni.
    Po długim okresie badań stwierdzono, że kluczową różnicą między dietami była zdolność OP50 i HT115 do nabywania witaminy B12 ze środowiska. Wykazaliśmy, że HT115 jest w tym zakresie o wiele bardziej wydajna i wytwarza ok. 8-krotnie więcej białka potrzebnego do pobierania B12 - wyjaśnia Alexey Revtovich.

    Autorzy artykułu z pisma PLoS Genetics przeprowadzili wiele testów, by potwierdzić wyniki i wykluczyć inne mechanizmy. Udokumentowali także, że C. elegans na diecie HT115 opierają się zakażeniu także innym patogenem - paciorkowcem kałowym.

    Ryan Lee podkreśla, że laboratoria z całego świata powinny uwzględnić różnicujący wpływ diety na C. elegans. Niektóre laboratoria wykorzystują jako standardowy pokarm OP50, pozostałe HT115 lub jeszcze inny szczep E. coli. Nasze badania pokazują, że istnieją znaczące metaboliczne różnice między dietami [...].

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in the past ~50 years, reaching pandemic levels. Obesity represents a major health challenge because it substantially increases the risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, dementia, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnoea and several cancers, thereby contributing to a decline in both quality of life and life expectancy. Obesity is also associated with unemployment, social disadvantages and reduced socio-economic productivity, thus increasingly creating an economic burden. Thus far, obesity prevention and treatment strategies — both at the individual and population level — have not been successful in the long term. Lifestyle and behavioural interventions aimed at reducing calorie intake and increasing energy expenditure have limited effectiveness because complex and persistent hormonal, metabolic and neurochemical adaptations defend against weight loss and promote weight regain. Reducing the obesity burden requires approaches that combine individual interventions with changes in the environment and society. Therefore, a better understanding of the remarkable regional differences in obesity prevalence and trends might help to identify societal causes of obesity and provide guidance on which are the most promising intervention strategies.
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  12. #672
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    Cytat Zamieszczone przez htw Zobacz posta
    Niedobór witaminy B12 zwiększa ryzyko zakażenia 2 groźnymi bakteriami
    zapomniałem dodać:

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with geographical latitude and solar radiation in the older population.

    Vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency are common in the older and are associated with several conditions including anaemia, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and cancer. Evidence from in vitro studies suggests that solar radiation can degrade both vitamins in the skin. Chile is the longest country in the world running perfectly North-South making it an ideal place to study potential associations of latitude and solar radiation on vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency.

    The objective was to examine the association between vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies and latitude.

    Plasma samples were collected from Chileans aged 65+ years (n=1013) living across the whole country and assayed for vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations as part of the Chilean Health Survey 2009-2010, which is a national representative sample study.

    Overall, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was 11.3%, with the prevalence in the North of the country being significantly greater than in the Central and South zones (19.1%,10.5%, and 5.7%, respectively; P<0.001). The prevalence of folic acid deficiency in the whole cohort was 0.7% with no difference between the 3 geographical zones. Using logistic regression analyses, vitamin B12 deficiency was significantly associated with geographical latitude (OR 0.910 [95% confidence intervals 0.890-0.940], P<0.001) and solar radiation (OR 1.203 [95% confidence intervals 1.119-1.294], P<<0.001). These associations persisted after adjustments for confounders (OR 0.930, P<0.001 and 1.198, P=0.002, respectively).

    In the Chilean population of 65+, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with living closer to the Equator and solar radiation. Although degradation by solar radiation might explain this observation, further work is required to establish the potential mechanisms. In countries that routinely fortify food with folic acid, efforts to identify vitamin B12 deficiency might be more cost-efficiently targeted in areas closest to the Equator.

    Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women

    We studied physical fitness and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in 10,224 men and 3120 women who were given a preventive medical examination. Physical fitness was measured by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Average follow-up was slightly more than 8 years, for a total of 110,482 person-years of observation. There were 240 deaths in men and 43 deaths in women. Age-adjusted all-cause mortality rates declined across physical fitness quintiles from 64.0 per 10,000 person-years in the least-fit men to 18.6 per 10,000 person-years in the most-fit men (slope, -4.5). Corresponding values for women were 39.5 per 10,000 person-years to 8.5 per 10,000 person-years (slope, -5.5). These trends remained after statistical adjustment for age, smoking habit, cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose level, parental history of coronary heart disease, and follow-up interval. Lower mortality rates in higher fitness categories also were seen for cardiovascular disease and cancer of combined sites. Attributable risk estimates for all-cause mortality indicated that low physical fitness was an important risk factor in both men and women. Higher levels of physical fitness appear to delay all-cause mortality primarily due to lowered rates of cardiovascular disease and cancer.
    Consumption of Energy Drinks and Their Effects on Sleep Quality among Students at the Copperbelt University School of Medicine in Zambia.

    Background. Good sleep quality is cardinal to good health, and research has shown that it plays a fundamental role in immunity, learning, metabolism, and other biological functions. Energy drink consumption is a popular practice among college students in the United States. There has been little research done on the consumption of energy drinks and its effects in Zambian universities. The main objective was to determine the effects of energy drinks on sleep quality among students at the Copperbelt University School of Medicine. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to 195 undergraduate students at the Copperbelt University School of Medicine in their second- and third-year of study. Energy drink consumption and sleep quality were assessed by univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. 157 students were enrolled into the study. The prevalence of energy drink consumption was 27.4% among participants. Studying for an exam was the most common reason for drinking energy drinks (83.7% of energy drink users). The majority of participants were found to be have poor sleep quality (59.6%). There was a statistically significant association between energy drink consumption and poor sleep quality (p value < 0.01). The findings of our study show that energy drink consumption is not a common practice in the Zambian university setting as the prevalence was 27.4%. Furthermore, the prevalence of poor sleep quality among Zambian university students is high and is significantly associated with energy drink consumption, and there is a need to better understand the patterns of energy drink use as well as their effects on various aspects of health including sleep quality in the Zambian setting. Further research should assess the knowledge of nonmedical students on the effects of energy drinks.

    jeśli jest tu jakaś Pani

    What really happens to your skin and hair while you’re sleeping - Beauty sleep is real.

    Eating mushrooms may reduce the risk of cognitive decline

    A six-year study, led by Assistant Professor Lei Feng (left) from the National University of Singapore, found that seniors who ate more than 300 grams of cooked mushrooms a week were half as likely to have mild cognitive impairment. Dr. Irwin Cheah (right) is a member of the research team.

    A portion was defined as three quarters of a cup of cooked mushrooms with an average weight of around 150 grams. Two portions would be equivalent to approximately half a plate. While the portion sizes act as a guideline, it was shown that even one small portion of mushrooms a week may still be beneficial to reduce chances of MCI.

    "This correlation is surprising and encouraging. It seems that a commonly available single ingredient could have a dramatic effect on cognitive decline," said Assistant Professor Lei Feng, who is from the NUS Department of Psychological Medicine, and the lead author of this work.

    The six-year study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2017, collected data from more than 600 Chinese seniors over the age of 60 living in Singapore. The research was carried out with support from the Life Sciences Institute and the Mind Science Centre at NUS, as well as the Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council. The results were published online in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease on 12 March 2019.

    Determining MCI in seniors

    MCI is typically viewed as the stage between the cognitive decline of normal ageing and the more serious decline of dementia. Seniors afflicted with MCI often display some form of memory loss or forgetfulness and may also show deficit on other cognitive function such as language, attention and visuospatial abilities. However, the changes can be subtle, as they do not experience disabling cognitive deficits that affect everyday life activities, which is characteristic of Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia.

    "People with MCI are still able to carry out their normal daily activities. So, what we had to determine in this study is whether these seniors had poorer performance on standard neuropsychologist tests than other people of the same age and education background," explained Asst Prof Feng. "Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks that can measure various aspects of a person's cognitive abilities. In fact, some of the tests we used in this study are adopted from commonly used IQ test battery, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)."

    As such, the researchers conducted extensive interviews and tests with the senior citizens to determine an accurate diagnosis. "The interview takes into account demographic information, medical history, psychological factors, and dietary habits. A nurse will measure blood pressure, weight, height, handgrip, and walking speed. They will also do a simple screen test on cognition, depression, anxiety," said Asst Prof Feng.

    After this, a two-hour standard neuropsychological assessment was performed, along with a dementia rating. The overall results of these tests were discussed in depth with expert psychiatrists involved in the study to get a diagnostic consensus.

    Mushrooms and cognitive impairment

    Six commonly consumed mushrooms in Singapore were referenced in the study. They were golden, oyster, shiitake and white button mushrooms, as well as dried and canned mushrooms. However, it is likely that other mushrooms not referenced would also have beneficial effects.

    The researchers believe the reason for the reduced prevalence of MCI in mushroom eaters may be down to a specific compound found in almost all varieties. "We're very interested in a compound called ergothioneine (ET)," said Dr Irwin Cheah, Senior Research Fellow at the NUS Department of Biochemistry. "ET is a unique antioxidant and anti-inflammatory which humans are unable to synthesise on their own. But it can be obtained from dietary sources, one of the main ones being mushrooms."

    An earlier study by the team on elderly Singaporeans revealed that plasma levels of ET in participants with MCI were significantly lower than age-matched healthy individuals. The work, which was published in the journal Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications in 2016, led to the belief that a deficiency in ET may be a risk factor for neurodegeneration, and increasing ET intake through mushroom consumption might possibly promote cognitive health.

    Other compounds contained within mushrooms may also be advantageous for decreasing the risk of cognitive decline. Certain hericenones, erinacines, scabronines and dictyophorines may promote the synthesis of nerve growth factors. Bioactive compounds in mushrooms may also protect the brain from neurodegeneration by inhibiting production of beta amyloid and phosphorylated tau, and acetylcholinesterase.

    Next steps

    The potential next stage of research for the team is to perform a randomised controlled trial with the pure compound of ET and other plant-based ingredients, such as L-theanine and catechins from tea leaves, to determine the efficacy of such phytonutrients in delaying cognitive decline. Such interventional studies will lead to more robust conclusion on causal relationship. In addition, Asst Prof Feng and his team also hope to identify other dietary factors that could be associated with healthy brain ageing and reduced risk of age-related conditions in the future.

    światłem i dźwiękiem w neurodegenerację:

    The brain's neurons generate electrical signals that synchronize to form brain waves in several different frequency ranges. Previous studies have suggested that Alzheimer's patients have impairments of their gamma-frequency oscillations, which range from 25 to 80 hertz (cycles per second) and are believed to contribute to brain functions such as attention, perception, and memory.

    In 2016, Tsai and her colleagues first reported the beneficial effects of restoring gamma oscillations in the brains of mice that are genetically predisposed to develop Alzheimer's symptoms. In that study, the researchers used light flickering at 40 hertz, delivered for one hour a day
    They found that this treatment reduced levels of beta amyloid plaques and another Alzheimer's-related pathogenic marker, phosphorylated tau protein. The treatment also stimulated the activity of debris-clearing immune cells known as microglia.

    In that study, the improvements generated by flickering light were limited to the visual cortex. In their new study, the researchers set out to explore whether they could reach other brain regions, such as those needed for learning and memory, using sound stimuli. They found that exposure to one hour of 40-hertz tones per day, for seven days, dramatically reduced the amount of beta amyloid in the auditory cortex (which processes sound) as well as the hippocampus, a key memory site that is located near the auditory cortex.

    Arnoldzik w formie:

    correlation doesn't imply causation

  13. #673
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    było ale raz jeszcze w PL:

    Alzheimera da się wyleczyć za pomocą... diod LED i głośników?

    Obecnie choroba Alzheimera jest nieuleczalna. Istnieje nieco leków, które czasowo poprawiają funkcjonowanie chorych, jednak żaden z nich nie powstrzymuje ani znacząco nie spowalnia postępów choroby. Wszystkie dotychczasowe próby farmakologicznego leczenia zawiodły.

    Tymczasem pojawiła się nadzieja na leczenie bez użycia środków chemicznych.

    W najnowszym numerze Cell czytamy o eksperymentach, w wyniku których w mózgach myszy z alzheimerem poddanych działaniu światła i dźwięku doszło do zmniejszenia liczby blaszek amyloidowych oraz splątków neurofibrylarnych.

    To fascynujący artykuł. I bardzo prowokacyjny pomysł. To nieinwazyjny, łatwy do zastosowania i tani sposób. Jeśli przynosiłoby to korzyści ludziom, byłoby cudownie, mówi neurolog Shannon Macauley z Wake Forest School of Medicine, która nie była zaangażowana w opisywane badania.

    Wszystko zaczęło się w 2015 roku, gdy neurolog Li-Huei Tsai, dyrektor The Picower Institute for Learning and Memory w MIT prowadziła eksperyment, którego celem było manipulowanie aktywnością mózgu myszy za pomocą błysków białego światła.


    Wczesne stadium choroby Alzheimera można wykryć w oczach, które tracą naczynia krwionośne w obrębie siatkówki

    Badanie okulistyczne może pomóc rozpoznać wczesne stadium choroby Alzheimera, zanim jeszcze pojawią się objawy utraty pamięci – przekonują na łamach czasopisma „Ophthalmology Retina” naukowcy z Duke University Medical Center. Wyniki prowadzonych przez nich badań pokazały, że osoby dotknięte alzheimerem tracą naczynia krwionośne w obrębie siatkówki oka. Nieinwazyjne badanie dna oka może łatwo to sprawdzić.

    Caloric and Macronutrient Intake Differ with Circadian Phase and between Lean and Overweight Young Adults

    The timing of caloric intake is a risk factor for excess weight and disease. Growing evidence suggests, however, that the impact of caloric consumption on metabolic health depends on its circadian phase, not clock hour. The objective of the current study was to identify how individuals consume calories and macronutrients relative to circadian phase in real-world settings. Young adults (n = 106; aged 19 ± 1 years; 45 females) photographically recorded the timing and content of all calories for seven consecutive days using a smartphone application during a 30-day study. Circadian phase was determined from in-laboratory assessment of dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO). Meals were assigned a circadian phase relative to each participant’s DLMO (0°, ~23:17 h) and binned into 60° bins. Lean (n = 68; 15 females) and non-lean (n = 38, 30 females) body composition was determined via bioelectrical impedance. The DLMO time range was ~10 h, allowing separation of clock time and circadian phase. Eating occurred at all circadian phases, with significant circadian rhythmicity (p < 0.0001) and highest caloric intake at ~300° (~1900 h). The non-lean group ate 8% more of their daily calories at an evening circadian phase (300°) than the lean group (p = 0.007). Consumption of carbohydrates and proteins followed circadian patterns (p < 0.0001) and non-lean participants ate 13% more carbohydrates at 240° (~1500 h) than the lean group (p = 0.004). There were no significant differences when caloric intake was referenced to local clock time or sleep onset time (p > 0.05). Interventions targeting the circadian timing of calories and macronutrients for weight management should be tested.
    5. Conclusions
    In summary, our findings suggest that the timing of caloric consumption differs depending on circadian phase in real-world settings, with non-lean individuals eating a greater percentage of calories at a later circadian phase. These findings potentially highlight a therapeutic area to target to combat the rise in unhealthy body composition. Further, these data reflect the importance of considering each individual’s circadian timing, and not just clock time, when devising therapeutic strategies that combat the timing of caloric intake.

    Effects of sleep restriction on metabolism-related parameters in healthy adults: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    This review aimed to provide a comprehensive examination of the effect of sleep restriction on metabolism-related parameters by synthesizing the emerging, best evidence. A systematic search was conducted in six electronic databases from inception to January 2018. We identified 41 randomized controlled trials using sleep restriction intervention. The outcomes included: subjective hunger, appetite-regulating hormones, changes in brain activity, energy intake and expenditure, weight change, insulin sensitivity or resistance. Sleep restriction resulted in a significant increase in subjective hunger on a 100 mm scale (mean difference = 13.4, p < 0.001). Participants consumed 252.8 more kcal/d (p = 0.011) under sleep restriction than under normal sleep. Partial sleep restriction resulted in a 0.34 kg weight gain (p = 0.003). Sleep restriction also decreased insulin sensitivity (standardized mean difference = -0.70, p < 0.01). Significant changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli were observed under sleep restriction, particularly regions related to cognitive control and reward. Overall, we did not find strong evidence supporting the significant impact of sleep restriction on mean leptin or ghrelin levels or energy expenditure. Findings from this review enhanced our knowledge about the detrimental effects of sleep restriction on metabolism and provided novel directions in preventing metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes.

    The role of hormonal, metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers on sleep and appetite in drug free patients with major depression: A systematic review.

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder in which clinical symptoms can widely differ among patients. Neurovegetative symptoms, i.e. decreased or increased appetite, changes in body weight and sleep disturbances, described as 'melancholic' or 'atypical' features of a depressive episode, are the most variable symptoms among patients with MDD. We hypothesized biomarkers differences underlying this neurovegetative variability in major depression.

    We systematically reviewed, according to the PRISMA guidelines, the role of specific metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory biomarkers in drug-free MDD patients, that could have neurobiological effects on appetite, weight regulation and circadian rhythms, influencing eating behaviour and sleep patterns. All studies regarding the co-occurrence of disturbed sleep and appetite were examined.

    Besides the well-known leptin and ghrelin, other biomarkers such as BDNF, VEGF, NPY, orexin, and the recent discovered nesfatin-1 seem to be involved in neurovegetative changes in depressive disorders playing a role in the regulation of affective states, stress reactions and sleep patterns. Interestingly, based on the existing evidence, ghrelin, orexin and nesfatin-1 could be linked both to sleep and appetite regulation in depressed patients.

    Heterogeneous studies with low sample size.

    Despite the wide heterogeneity of results, studies on biomarkers of appetite and sleep in MDD are an interesting field of research to explain the neurobiological substrates of depressive symptoms that deserve further investigation.

    kiedy mięśnie rosną komórki macierzyste przekształcają się w nowe komórki mięśniowe, a ten proces jest regulowany przez dwa białka w sposób oscylacyjny.

    Oscillation in muscle tissue

    Muscle stem cells have to be ready to spring into action at any time: When a muscle becomes injured, for example, during a sports activity, it is their responsibility to develop new muscle cells as quickly as possible. When a muscle grows, because its owner is still growing too or has started to do more sports, the conversion of stem cells is also required.

    "At the same time, however, there needs to be a mechanism in the body that prevents an uncontrolled differentiation of stem cells -- because otherwise the supply of these cells in the muscles would be quickly depleted," says Professor Carmen Birchmeier, head of the research group on Developmental Biology / Signal Transduction at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC).

    Oscillation was previously only known to occur in brain stem cells

    Birchmeier teamed up with colleagues from Berlin, Cologne, London, Paris, and Kyoto on mouse experiments that examined how this mechanism works. The group of researchers has now reported in the journal Genes & Development that the MyoD and Hes1 proteins regulate the differentiation of muscle cells. They are produced in the stem cells in an oscillatory manner -- i.e., there are periodic fluctuations in the number of cells produced.

    "This observation, first of all, was astonishing in itself," says Birchmeier, "because no one before us had detected the oscillation of proteins in muscle." Such a phenomenon was previously only observed in stem cells of the brain. The MDC researcher hopes her studies will one day lead to better treatments of muscular dystrophies and of sarcopenia, a syndrome characterized by the progressive loss of muscle mass with advancing age.

    Production runs at full tilt every two to three hours

    "In our experiments, we started off by connecting the Hes1 and MyoD to proteins to luminescent -- i.e., light-emitting -- proteins so that we could better track their development," explains Dr. Ines Lahmann, the study's lead author and a member of Birchmeier's research group. The team was then able to observe -- in isolated cells, in muscle tissue, and in living animals -- that the Hes1 protein, which is part of the Notch signaling pathway, is produced in an oscillatory manner.

    "Production reaches its peak every two to three hours and then declines again," reports Lahmann, adding that they encountered the same phenomenon in the MyoD protein. "As long as the quantity of MyoD in the stem cells fluctuates periodically, the cells grow and divide, thus renewing themselves," says Lahmann. This, according to her, ensures there is always a sufficient supply of stem cells in the muscle.

    Stable protein production is crucial for differentiation

    When a muscle stem cell starts to differentiate and develop into a muscle cell, one result is the formation of long muscle fibers. This occurs, for example, when a muscle grows in a young organism or when it tries to repair itself after an injury. "Every time we observed this conversion of cells under the microscope, we had previously noticed that the oscillation had stopped and MyoD was expressed stably -- regardless of whether we were looking at newborn or adult animals," reports Birchmeier.

    Her team then proceeded to turn the gene for Hes1 completely off, so that the protein is no longer produced in the stem cells. The researchers also conducted this experiment on both cells and living animals. "The lack of Hes1 led to MyoD no longer being produced in an oscillatory manner, but rather in a stable pattern. All stem cells began to differentiate as a result," says Birchmeier.

    The goal is new therapies for muscular disorder patients

    "Our experiments show that when it comes to stem cell differentiation and probably many other cellular processes, genes are not simply turned on or off -- and that we are still a long way from understanding all the developments that occur when we use genetic tricks to do exactly that," Birchmeier stressed.

    She and her team next want to study why the oscillation of MyoD leads to stem cell differentiation not taking place in the muscles, and why a stable production of the protein is needed to trigger this process. "Once we gain a better understanding of the whole process," says the researcher, "we will be able to better help people with muscular disorders whose natural capacity for muscle regeneration has been impaired."

    a zegarach mięśniowych można wyczytać najwięcej tu:
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  14. #674
    stary skrobnij coś o diecie ketogenicznej, gdzie 5% całej puli kalorii to węgle. Co o niej sądzisz?

  15. #675
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 477
    ogólnie czy w szczególnym kontekście ?
    correlation doesn't imply causation

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