Strona 55 z 55 PierwszyPierwszy ... 545535455
Pokaż wyniki od 811 do 819 z 819

Wątek: NATURALNE sposoby optymalizacji CIAŁA i DUSZY.

  1. #811
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 659
    tak tak, nawet mleko matki ma swoją rytmiczność:

    Human milk as “chrononutrition”: implications for child health and development

    Abstract
    Human biology follows recurring daily rhythms that are governed by circadian cues in the environment. Here we show that human milk is a powerful form of “chrononutrition,” formulated to communicate time-of-day information to infants. However, 85% of breastfed infants in the US consume some milk that does not come directly from the breast but is pumped and stored in advance of feeding. Expressed milk is not necessarily circadian-matched (e.g., an infant might drink breastmilk pumped in the evening on the following morning). Ingesting mistimed milk may disrupt infants’ developing circadian rhythms, potentially contributing to sleep problems and decreased physiological attunement with their mothers and environments. Dysregulated circadian biology may compromise infant health and development. Despite wide-ranging public health implications, the timing of milk delivery has received little empirical study, and no major pediatric or public health organization has issued recommendations regarding the circadian-matching of milk. However, potential adverse developmental and health consequences could be ameliorated by simple, low-cost interventions to label and circadian-match stored milk. The current paper reviews evidence for human milk as chrononutrition and makes recommendations for future research, practice, and policy.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41390-019-0368-x

    Too much coffee raises the odds of triggering a migraine headache

    Drinking three or more servings of caffeinated beverages a day is associated with the onset of a headache on that or the following day in patients with episodic migraine, according to a new study in The American Journal of Medicine, published by Elsevier. Results are consistent even after accounting for daily changes in alcohol intake, stress, sleep, physical activity, and menstruation, although there was some variation evident with oral contraception use.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-headache.html


    link do poprzedniego badania:

    Medicine in the Fourth Dimension.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/...?dopt=Abstract
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  2. #812
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 659
    zastosowanie intensywnego światła (PER2) w leczeniu chorób sercowo-naczyniowych.

    yhm, kardio-protekcyjne zastosowanie wschodu słońca.

    AUGUST 06, 2019
    Intense Light-Mediated Circadian Cardioprotection via Transcriptional Reprogramming of the Endothelium



    Summary
    Consistent daylight oscillations and abundant oxygen availability are fundamental to human health. Here, we investigate the intersection between light-sensing (Period 2 [PER2]) and oxygen-sensing (hypoxia-inducible factor [HIF1A]) pathways in cellular adaptation to myocardial ischemia. We demonstrate that intense light is cardioprotective via circadian PER2 amplitude enhancement, mimicking hypoxia-elicited adenosine- and HIF1A-metabolic adaptation to myocardial ischemia under normoxic conditions. Whole-genome array from intense light-exposed wild-type or Per2−/− mice and myocardial ischemia in endothelial-specific PER2-deficient mice uncover a critical role for intense light in maintaining endothelial barrier function via light-enhanced HIF1A transcription. A proteomics screen in human endothelia reveals a dominant role for PER2 in metabolic reprogramming to hypoxia via mitochondrial translocation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme activity regulation, and HIF1A transcriptional adaption to hypoxia. Translational investigation of intense light in human subjects identifies similar PER2 mechanisms, implicating the use of intense light for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
    https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.literatumon...030009/fx1.jpg

    Obese Individuals with and without Type 2 Diabetes Show Different Gut Microbial Functional Capacity and Composition



    Summary
    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic disorders that are linked to microbiome alterations. However, their co-occurrence poses challenges in disentangling microbial features unique to each condition. We analyzed gut microbiomes of lean non-diabetic (n = 633), obese non-diabetic (n = 494), and obese individuals with T2D (n = 153) from German population and metabolic disease cohorts. Microbial taxonomic and functional profiles were analyzed along with medical histories, serum metabolomics, biometrics, and dietary data. Obesity was associated with alterations in microbiome composition, individual taxa, and functions with notable changes in Akkermansia, Faecalibacterium, Oscillibacter, and Alistipes, as well as in serum metabolites that correlated with gut microbial patterns. However, microbiome associations were modest for T2D, with nominal increases in Escherichia/Shigella. Medications, including antihypertensives and antidiabetics, along with dietary supplements including iron, were significantly associated with microbiome variation. These results differentiate microbial components of these interrelated metabolic diseases and identify dietary and medication exposures to consider in future studies.
    https://www.cell.com/cell-host-micro...8#.XUxMrVShoUY


    Blackcurrants boost dopamine, make physical activity more enjoyable

    A glass of blackcurrant juice, taken for long-term moderately intensive exercise, makes that activity less tiring. This is probably because the phenols in blackcurrants increase the dopamine concentration in the brain, researchers at the New Zealand research institute Plant & Food Research [plantandfood.co.nz] discovered.
    http://www.ergo-log.com/blackcurrant...enjoyable.html



    „Wszystko co słyszymy jest opinią, nie faktem. Wszystko co widzimy jest punktem widzenia, nie prawdą”.

    – Marek Aureliusz
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 08-08-19 o 18:49
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  3. #813
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 659
    Klienci pokochali "godziny ciszy" w supermarkecie. Ta sieć wprowadza je we wszystkich sklepach

    Godziny ciszy w Auchan
    - Nasza akcja społeczna „Godziny ciszy" spotkała się z bardzo pozytywnym odbiorem. Do końca sierpnia wszystkie sklepy Auchan wprowadzą u siebie taką możliwość zakupów - poinformowała serwis wiadomoscihandlowe.pl Dorota Patejko, rzecznik prasowy Auchan.

    Zaczęło się od sklepu w Częstochowie. To tam zdecydowano się przygasić światła, wyłączyć muzykę i telewizory oraz otworzyć specjalną kasę dla osób ze spektrum autyzmu. Choć trudno oszacować wpływ akcji „Godziny ciszy” na liczbę klientów, do Auchan docierały komunikaty o dobrym przyjęciu czasu bez jaskrawych świateł, muzyki i komunikatów również wśród klientów bez zaburzeń.

    Z tego powodu inicjatywa zostanie wprowadzona we wszystkich sklepach. O tym, kiedy będą trwały „Godziny ciszy” w poszczególnych sklepach, klienci będą mogli dowiedzieć się z lokalnych mediów społecznościowych lub bezpośrednio w sklepie na plakacie.
    https://innpoland.pl/154053,godziny-...sklepach-kiedy

    AUGUST 9, 2019
    Abundant screen time linked with overweight among children

    A recently completed study indicates that Finnish children who spend a lot of time in front of screens have a heightened risk for overweight and abdominal obesity, regardless of the extent of their physical activity.
    The increase in childhood obesity is one of the largest health problems globally. The study investigated links between screen time and overweight by utilising the Finnish Health in Teens data (Fin-HIT), encompassing more than 10,000 children from across Finland. The children studied were between 9 and 12 years of age.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-children.html

    schizofrenia/parkinson czyli stan, gdzie neurony dopaminergiczne nie pracują prawidłowo.
    Gdzie problem z dopaminą tam problem z zegarem, grzebali grzebali aż wygrzebali.

    siedzisz do 2 w nocy przed monitem ?
    a w dzień szukasz miejsca dla "zdrowej drzemki" i walisz kawę za kawą ?

    AUGUST 9, 2019
    Disrupted genetic clocks in schizophrenia-affected brains reveal clues to the disease

    Rhythms in gene expression in the brain are highly disrupted in people with schizophrenia, according to a new University of Pittsburgh-led study.
    The findings, published today by researchers from the Pitt's School of Medicine in the journal Nature Communications, also suggest that researchers studying schizophrenia-linked genes in the brain could have missed important clues that would help understand the disease.
    "Our study shows for the first time that there are significant disruptions in the daily timing of when some genes are turned on or off, which has implications for how we understand the disease at a molecular level," said senior author Colleen McClung, Ph.D., professor of psychiatry at Pitt's School of Medicine.

    Many bodily functions run on a 24-hour cycle, called a circadian rhythm, which extends to how genes are expressed within cells. Some genes turn on or off at certain times of the day or night.

    In this study, McClung and colleagues analyzed gene expression data from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex—a brain region responsible for cognition and memory—from 46 people with schizophrenia and 46 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. The data was obtained from the CommonMind Consortium, a public-private partnership that has curated a rich brain tissue and data bank for studying neuropsychiatric disorders.

    By knowing the time of death, the researchers were able to use a statistical method to determine changes in the rhythmicity of different genes, which revealed some interesting patterns.

    McClung explained the findings by drawing an analogy of gene expression to electrical appliances in a house.

    "In a normal house—like a healthy brain—let's say the lights are turned on at night, but the refrigerator needs to be on all the time. What we saw was that in a schizophrenia-affected brain, the lights are on all day and the refrigerator shuts off at night."

    This is problematic, explains McClung, because it can affect how cells function. In their samples, the genes that gained rhythmicity were involved in how mitochondria—the cell's powerhouse—functions, and those that lost rhythmicity were linked to inflammation.

    The results also have implications for other researchers studying the genetics of schizophrenia, according to Marianne Seney, Ph.D., assistant professor of psychiatry at Pitt's School of Medicine and the study's first author. By not considering circadian rhythms, they could be missing out on important findings.

    When Seney and McClung compared gene expression in brains from people who died during the day, the control and schizophrenia subjects were not different, but in those who died at night, there were major differences, since genes that had gained a rhythm had hit their low point during the night.

    Seney alludes to the analogy of the house. "If we only looked to see if the refrigerator was on during the day we would see no difference, but at night, there would be one."
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ed-brains.html

    "obojętna" fala elektromagnetyczna, blokuje rozprzestrzenianie się komórek rakowych.

    AUGUST 8, 2019
    Electromagnetic fields may hinder spread of breast cancer cells

    They found that metastatic triple-negative breast cancer cells—cancer cells that, by their nature, do not respond to hormonal therapy or to treatments that target a gene commonly expressed in breast cancer cells—were the most sensitive to electromagnetic fields.

    And, in their tests, they found that certain drug therapies—and specifically one that targets a pathway for cancer called AKT—could enhance the ability of the electromagnetic fields to block the cancer cells from spreading.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...st-cancer.html

    The Effect of Resistance Exercise on All-Cause Mortality in Cancer Survivors



    Results
    Physical activity in cancer survivors was not associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. In contrast, RE was associated with a 33% lower risk of all-cause mortality (95% CI, 0.45-0.99) after adjusting for potential confounders, including PA.

    Conclusion
    Individuals who participated in RE during cancer survival had a lower risk for all-cause mortality. The present findings provide preliminary evidence for benefits of RE during cancer survival. Future randomized controlled trials examining RE and its effect on lean body mass, muscular strength, and all-cause mortality in cancer survivors are warranted.
    https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.or...2814%2900378-4

    parę słów o wydajności:

    Circadian Rhythms in Attention

    Abstract
    Attention is a cognitive process crucial for human performance. It has four components: tonic alertness, phasic alertness, selective attention, and sustained attention. All the components of attention show homeostatic (time awake, sleep deprivation) and circadian (time of day) variations. The time course of the circadian rhythms in attention is important to program work and school-related activities. The components of attention reach their lowest levels during nighttime and early hours in the morning, better levels occur around noon, and even higher levels can be observed during afternoon and evening hours. However, this time course can be modulated by chronotype, sleep deprivation, age, or drugs. Homeostatic and circadian variations have also been found in other basic cognitive processes (working memory and executive functions), with a time course similar to that observed for attention. Data reviewed in this paper suggests the need to consider circadian rhythms, age, and chronotype of the person, when programming schedules for work, study, school start time, school testing, psychological testing, and neuropsychological assessment.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430172/

    correlation doesn't imply causation

  4. #814
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 659
    jeśli kogoś nie interesują informację o kardioprotekcyjnych właściwościach porannego słońca, to może zainteresuję się w jaki sposób optymalizuje silnik (nie paliwo):

    tutaj jest ładna animacja (zasada działania spłuczki do kibla):




    Endothelial PER2 Transcriptionally Regulates Mitochondrial Respiration and Barrier Function

    Additional analysis of our proteomics screen indicated binding of PER2 to mitochondrial complex 4 (Table S1, cytochrome c), supporting a role for PER2 in controlling mitochondrial function under hypoxia. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR, a measure of mitochondrial functionality), basal respiration, maximal respiration, ATP production, and spare capacity were significantly reduced in PER2KD cells during a mitochondrial stress test (Figures 5A–5D; Figure S7). Moreover, OCR levels were significantly increased in cells with higher PER2 levels at the 24 h time point when compared with 12 h post-cell synchronization (Eckle et al., 2012). These findings highlight a role for oscillatory PER2 overexpression in metabolic adaptation under normoxia (Figure S7).
    Considering that HIF1A mediates a switch of complex 4 subunits (COX4.1 to COX4.2) in hypoxia to enhance oxygen efficiency, which conserves cellular ATP content (Fukuda et al., 2007), we next investigated the transcriptional regulation of COX4.2 in PER2KD cells under hypoxia. Here, we found abolished increases of COX4.2 mRNA or complex 4 activity in hypoxic PER2KD cells or ischemic hearts from Per2−/− mice, respectively (Figures 5E and 5F). Moreover, intense light preconditioning of wild-type mice resulted in significantly increased cardiac COX4.2 mRNA levels at ZT3 in the uninjured heart (Figure 5G).

    To understand whether compromised oxidative phosphorylation in PER2 deficiency would be associated with reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, which is associated with compromised mitochondrial function (Solaini et al., 2010), we next used MitoTracker deep red staining (Zhou et al., 2011). Studies of PER2KD HMEC-1 indicated already reduced mitochondrial potential under normoxia (Figure 5H). Analysis of a cell energy phenotype assay revealed significantly less aerobic metabolism in PER2KD cells at baseline (Figure S8). Confirming these results, 5,5’,6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3’-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) assay showed a significant reduction of the membrane potential in PER2KD cells at normoxia and under hypoxia (Figure 5I; Figure S8).

    To explore PER2-dependent metabolism, we next used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry studies following the exposure of labeled glucose (13C-fructose) or labeled palmitic acid (13C-palmitic acid) to assess metabolic flux in PER2KD endothelial cells. Here we confirmed that PER2 is an essential regulator of glycolysis and oxidative metabolism under hypoxia (Figures 5J and 5K). Moreover, we found PER2 to be critical for the pentose phosphate pathway under normoxia or hypoxia, indicating that PER2KD cells are compromised in generating the reduction-oxidation reaction (redox) cofactor NADPH, which has a pivotal role for circadian timekeeping (Figure 5L) (Rey et al., 2016). Because PER2 has been shown to inhibit lipid metabolism via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) (Grimaldi et al., 2010), we also found altered fatty acid metabolism in PER2KD cells under hypoxia (Figure 5M). In silico analysis of our proteomics screen confirmed these findings and highlighted PER2 as a master regulator of endothelial energy metabolism (Figure S9).

    Because ATP has been implicated in endothelial barrier enhancement and tight junction functionality (Kolosova et al., 2005), we next evaluated endothelial barrier function of PER2KD HMECs and controls during a 24 h hypoxia time course. As shown in Figure 5N, PER2KD HMEC demonstrated increased cell permeability at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h of hypoxia when compared with Scr controls. Considering that previous studies had demonstrated that HIF-dependent regulation of claudin-1 is central to epithelial tight junction integrity (Saeedi et al., 2015), we also evaluated claudin-1 expression levels. As shown in Figure 5O, PER2KD cells had significantly lower HIF1A-regulated Claudin-1 mRNA levels. In addition, intense light preconditioning of wild-type mice resulted in significantly increased cardiac Claudin-1 mRNA levels at ZT3 (Figure 5P).

    Altogether, these data identify endothelial PER2 as a critical control point of energy homeostasis and endothelial barrier function via transcriptional regulation of HIF1A-dependent mitochondrial respiration and claudin-1.


    Figure 5. Endothelial PER2 Regulates Mitochondrial ATP Production and Barrier Function

    A Light-Sensing Human Endothelial Cell Line Recapitulates In Vivo Light Exposure

    As proof of concept that PER2 mimics HIF1A pathways under normoxia, we reiterated light sensing for PER2 overexpression on a cellular level by generating an HMEC-1 line overexpressing the human light-sensing photopigment melanopsin (OPN4), a retinal ganglion cell receptor responsible for circadian entrainment. Exposing the light-sensing HMEC-1 cultures to light resulted in a significant increase of cAMP, pCREB (phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein), PER2 mRNA, glycolytic capacity, and OCRs (Figures 6A–6H). Altogether, these studies recapitulate that normoxic PER2 overexpression can optimize cellular metabolism similar to what is seen under hypoxic conditions.
    In summary, our in vivo and in vitro studies on light-elicited pathways identified a light perception-dependent circadian entrainment mechanism through adenosine-cAMP and HIF1A transcriptional adaptation in a PER2-regulated manner. Furthermore, our studies discover that light or hypoxia elicits PER2 as a critical factor in maintaining endothelial barrier function during myocardial ischemia via transcriptional reprogramming (Figure 6I).

    Intense Light Enhances the Circadian Amplitude and PER2-Dependent Metabolism in Humans

    Next, we investigated whether intense light would have similar effects on healthy human volunteers. Based on strategies using intense light therapy (10,000 lux) to treat seasonal mood disorders in humans (Yorguner Kupeli et al., 2018), we adopted a similar protocol. We exposed healthy human volunteers to 30 min of intense light in the morning on 5 consecutive days and performed serial blood draws. Intense light therapy increased PER2 protein levels in human buccal or plasma samples in the morning (9 a.m.) or evening (9 p.m.), indicating an enhancement of the circadian amplitude in different tissues at the same time via light therapy (Figures 7A–7C; Figure S10). To test the efficacy of intense light therapy on the circadian system (Lewy et al., 1980), we determined melatonin plasma levels, which were significantly suppressed upon light treatment (Figures 7D and 7E). In addition, room light was less efficient than intense light therapy in suppressing melatonin (Figure 7D).
    Further analyses revealed that intense light therapy increased plasma phosphofructokinase at 9 a.m. or 9 p.m. (Figures 7F and 7G). Moreover, plasma triglycerides, surrogates for insulin sensitivity and carbohydrate metabolism (Ginsberg et al., 2005), significantly decreased upon light therapy (Figure 7H), indicating increased insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Targeted metabolomics from human plasma samples confirmed a strong effect of light therapy on metabolic pathways such as glycolysis or the TCA cycle (Figure 7I; Figure S10). We found significant decreases in pyruvate or succinate levels after 5 days of light therapy (Figures 7J and 7K). Together with increased plasma phosphofructokinase activity, this finding indicates that improved metabolic flux, possibly because of increased glycolysis, improved TCA cycle or mitochondrial function.

    Because sleep deprivation is directly associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and compromised glucose metabolism (Depner et al., 2014), we next determined how light therapy would affect human physiology in terms of sleep behavior. Using a validated accelerometer for actigraphy (Lee and Suen, 2017) (Actiwatch 2), we found fewer WASO (wake after sleep onset) episodes, overall improved sleep efficiency, increased day activity, and increases of the circadian amplitude (Figures 7L–7P; Figure S11).

    Altogether, our data suggest that intense light therapy, a mechanism of circadian amplitude enhancement, targets PER2-dependent metabolic pathways in humans that are similar to those seen in mice and may present a promising strategy for the treatment or prevention of low-oxygen conditions such as myocardial ischemia.


    Figure 7. Intense Light Enhances the Circadian Amplitude of PER2 and Activates PER2 Metabolism in Humans

    wyjebany zegar nadnerczy bardziej uderza w kobiety:

    Sex Differences in Adrenal Bmal1 Deletion-Induced Augmentation of Glucocorticoid Responses to Stress and ACTH in Mice

    Abstract
    The circadian glucocorticoid (GC) rhythm is dependent on a molecular clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and an adrenal clock that is synchronized by the SCN. To determine whether the adrenal clock modulates GC responses to stress, experiments used female and male Cyp11A1Cre/+:: Bmal1Fl/Fl KO (SCC-KO) mice, in which the core clock gene, Bmal1, is deleted in all steroidogenic tissues including the adrenal cortex. Following restraint stress, female and male SCC-KO mice demonstrate augmented plasma corticosterone, but not plasma ACTH. In contrast, following submaximal scruff stress, plasma corticosterone was elevated only in female SCC-KO mice. Adrenal sensitivity to ACTH was measured in vitro using acutely dispersed adrenocortical cells. Maximal corticosterone responses to ACTH were elevated in cells from female KO mice without affecting the EC50 response. Neither the maximum nor the EC50 response to ACTH was affected in male cells, indicating that female SCC-KO show a stronger adrenal phenotype. Parallel experiments were done using female Cyp11B2 (Aldosterone Synthase)Cre/+:: Bmal1Fl/Fl mice, adrenal cortex-specific Bmal1 null (Ad-KO) mice. Plasma corticosterone was increased in Ad-KO mice following restraint or scruff stress, and in vitro responses to ACTH were elevated in adrenal cells from Ad-KO mice, replicating data from female SCC-KO mice. Gene analysis showed increased expression of adrenal genes in female SCC-KO mice involved in cell cycle control, cell adhesion-extracellular matrix interaction and ligand receptor activity that could promote steroid production. These observations underscore a role for adrenal Bmal1 as an attenuator of steroid secretion that is most prominent in female mice.
    https://academic.oup.com/endo/advanc...-00357/5539983

    dodatkowo :
    Zona Reticularis
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 11-08-19 o 18:29
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  5. #815
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 659
    w oczekiwaniu na pełną publikację

    12 August 2019
    Leptin and the endocrine control of energy balance



    Abstract
    The discovery of leptin changed the view of adipose tissue from that of a passive vessel that stores fat to that of a dynamic endocrine organ that actively regulates behaviour and metabolism. Secreted by adipose tissue, leptin functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop, acting primarily on neurons in the hypothalamus and regulating feeding and many other functions. The leptin endocrine system serves a critical evolutionary function by maintaining the relative constancy of adipose tissue mass, thereby protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation and infertility) or too obese (predation). In this Review, the biology of leptin is summarized, and a conceptual framework is established for studying the pathogenesis of obesity, which, analogously to diabetes, can result from either leptin hyposecretion or leptin resistance. Herein, these two states are distinguished with the terms ‘type 1 obesity’ and ‘type 2 obesity’: type 1 obesity describes a subset of obese individuals with low endogenous plasma leptin levels who respond to leptin therapy, whereas type 2 obesity describes most obese individuals, who are leptin resistant but might respond to leptin therapy in combination with other drugs, such as leptin sensitizers.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s42255-019-0095-y
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  6. #816
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 659
    Oxytocin in metabolic homeostasis: implications for obesity and diabetes management



    Summary
    Oxytocin was once understood solely as a neuropeptide with a central role in social bonding, reproduction, parturition, lactation and appetite regulation. Recent evidence indicates that oxytocin enhances glucose uptake and lipid utilization in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, suggesting that dysfunction of the oxytocin system could underlie the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Murine studies revealed that deficiencies in oxytocin signalling and oxytocin receptor expression lead to obesity despite normal food intake, motor activity and increased leptin levels. In addition, plasma oxytocin concentration is notably lower in obese individuals with diabetes, which may suggest an involvement of the oxytocin system in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease. More recently, small scale studies demonstrated that intranasal administration of oxytocin was associated with significant weight loss as well as improvements in insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β‐cell responsivity in human subjects. The multi‐pronged effects of oxytocin signalling on improving peripheral insulin sensitivity, pancreatic function and lipid homeostasis strongly suggest a role for this system as a therapeutic target in obesity and diabetes management. The complexity of obesity aetiology and the pathogenesis of obesity‐related metabolic complications underscore the need for a systems approach to better understand the role of oxytocin in metabolic function.
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...7#.XVIZBtD1r98

    Metabolically healthy obesity, vitamin D, and all-cause and cardiometabolic mortality risk in NHANES III

    Results
    Among 11,333 participants, a total of 2980 deaths (937 cardiometabolic death outcomes) occurred during a median follow-up of 19.1 years. In the absence of any metabolic abnormality, obesity (MHO) was not associated with a higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89 [95% CI, 0.52–1.51]) or cardiometabolic mortality (cause-specific HR, 1.21 [95% CI 0.33–4.46]). Similar results were obtained from competing risk analysis. No significant differences in average 25(OH)D levels were observed between MHO and non-MHO participants; however, there was a significant interaction between metabolic health phenotype and serum 25(OH)D in relation to cardiometabolic mortality such that levels of serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L were associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic mortality, particularly in participants within the normal-weight and obese BMI ranges.

    Conclusions
    Our results support the hypothesis that MHO phenotype is a benign health condition. Vitamin D deficiency may exacerbate the risk of cardiometabolic death outcomes associated with metabolic dysfunction in normal weight and obese individuals. Further research is warranted to validate our findings.
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...61561418300906

    przypominam co się dzieje jak UBV dotyka cholesterolu :



    Fast food availability linked with more heart attacks

    Areas with a higher number of fast food restaurants have more heartattacks, according to research presented at CSANZ 2019. The study also found that for every additional fast food ******, there were four additional heart attacks per 100,000 people each year.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ked-heart.html

    Mitochondrial function as a therapeutic target in heart failure






    Abstract
    Heart failure is a pressing worldwide public-health problem with millions of patients having worsening heart failure. Despite all the available therapies, the condition carries a very poor prognosis. Existing therapies provide symptomatic and clinical benefit, but do not fully address molecular abnormalities that occur in cardiomyocytes. This shortcoming is particularly important given that most patients with heart failure have viable dysfunctional myocardium, in which an improvement or normalization of function might be possible. Although the pathophysiology of heart failure is complex, mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be an important target for therapy to improve cardiac function directly. Mitochondrial abnormalities include impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain activity, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, shifted metabolic substrate utilization, aberrant mitochondrial dynamics, and altered ion homeostasis. In this Consensus Statement, insights into the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure are presented, along with an overview of emerging treatments with the potential to improve the function of the failing heart by targeting mitochondria.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/nrcardio.2016.203

    The effect of being overweight and obese on cancer risk is at least double than previously thought

    The effect of being overweight and obese on the risk of cancer is at least twice as large as previously thought according to new findings by an international research team which included University of Bristol academics.

    The study published in the International Journal of Epidemiology was led by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and involved researchers from Bristol Medical School.
    The team conducted genetic analyses on eight common obesity-related cancer types. They compared the genetic Mendelian randomization estimates of the association between body mass index (BMI) and cancer risk with the estimates from classical cohort studies.
    Excess body fatness is already recognized as an important cause of cancer and has been estimated to account for six per cent of all cancers in high-income countries. According to the results of this new analysis, the proportion of cancers attributable to overweight and obesity is, in fact, substantially higher.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...reviously.html

    Gut-brain connection helps explain how overeating leads to obesity

    Eating extra servings typically shows up on the scale later, but how this happens has not been clear. A new study published today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation by a multi-institutional team led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine reveals a previously unknown gut-brain connection that helps explain how those extra servings lead to weight gain.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...g-obesity.html

    Reduced carbohydrate intake improves type 2 diabetics' ability to regulate blood sugar

    Patients with type 2 diabetes improve their ability to regulate blood sugar levels if they eat food with a reduced carbohydrate content and an increased share of protein and fat. This is shown by a recent study conducted at Bispebjerg Hospital in collaboration with, among other partners, Aarhus University and the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports at the University of Copenhagen. The findings are contrary to the conventional dietary recommendations for type 2 diabetics.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ity-blood.html

    New study links high-fat diet and gut bacteria to insulin resistance

    Researchers have discovered how our choice of diet can weaken our gut immune system and lead to the development of diabetes.

    A growing body of research supports that during obesity, our immune system is often responding to components of bacteria that "leak" through the intestinal tissue and results in inflammation. In turn, inflammation can drive insulin resistance, which predisposes people to diabetes.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-bacteria.html

    The effects of exercise on your appetite

    Are you hungry after you exercise? That might not be a problem if you're at a healthy weight, but if you're trying to shed extra pounds, the calories you take in could replace the ones you just worked so hard to burn off.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-appetite.html

    Influence of Fish Oil-Derived n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Changes in Body Composition and Muscle Strength During Short-Term Weight Loss in Resistance-Trained Men

    Results:
    The decline in total body mass (FO = −3.0 ± 0.3 kg, CON = −2.6 ± 0.3 kg), fat free mass (FO = −1.4 ± 0.3 kg, CON = −1.2 ± 0.3 kg) and fat mass (FO = −1.4 ± 0.2 kg, CON = −1.3 ± 0.3 kg) following energy restriction was similar between groups (all p > 0.05; d: 0.16–0.39). Non-dominant leg extension 1 RM increased (6.1 ± 3.4%) following energy restriction in FO (p < 0.05, d = 0.29), with no changes observed in CON (p > 0.05, d = 0.05). Dominant leg extension 1 RM tended to increase following energy restriction in FO (p = 0.09, d = 0.29), with no changes in CON (p > 0.05, d = 0.06). Changes in leg press 1 RM, maximum voluntary contraction and muscular endurance following energy restriction were similar between groups (p > 0.05, d = 0.05).

    Conclusion: Any possible improvements in muscle strength during short-term weight loss with n-3PUFA supplementation are not related to the modulation of FFM in resistance-trained men.
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...019.00102/full
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  7. #817
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 659
    Interconnection between circadian clocks and thyroid function

    Review Article
    Published: 12 August 2019
    Interconnection between circadian clocks and thyroid function
    Keisuke Ikegami, Samuel Refetoff, Eve Van Cauter & Takashi Yoshimura
    Nature Reviews Endocrinology (2019) | Download Citation

    Abstract
    Circadian rhythmicity is an approximately 24-h cell-autonomous period driven by transcription–translation feedback loops of specific genes, which are referred to as ‘circadian clock genes’. In mammals, the central circadian pacemaker, which is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, controls peripheral circadian clocks. The circadian system regulates virtually all physiological processes, which are further modulated by changes in the external environment, such as light exposure and the timing of food intake. Chronic circadian disruption caused by shift work, travel across time zones or irregular sleep–wake cycles has long-term consequences for our health and is an important lifestyle factor that contributes to the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer. Although the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis is under the control of the circadian clock via the suprachiasmatic nucleus pacemaker, daily TSH secretion profiles are disrupted in some patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been recognized as a perturbation of the endocrine system and of cell cycle progression. Expression profiles of circadian clock genes are abnormal in well-differentiated thyroid cancer but not in the benign nodules or a healthy thyroid. Therefore, the characterization of the thyroid clock machinery might improve the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

    Key points

    - The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis is controlled by the central circadian pacemaker located in the
    suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    - Daily TSH secretion profiles are often disrupted in patients with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

    - Circadian dysfunction caused by shift work, travel across time zones or irregular sleep–wake cycles might
    be a novel lifestyle risk factor for disturbances in thyroid homeostasis in modern societies.

    - Disruption of circadian clock genes in vivo and in vitro disturbs cell cycle progression.

    - The circadian clock is thought to be disrupted in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.




    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-019-0237-z


    How our biological clocks are locked in sync

    Scientists from EPFL's Institute of Bioengineering have discovered that the circadian clock and the cell-cycle are, in fact, synchronized.

    Nothing in biology is static; everything is fluid, dynamic and ever-moving. Often, this movement occurs in repeating patterns—regular, measurable cycles that tick just like "clocks."
    https://phys.org/news/2019-08-biolog...ocks-sync.html

    Testosterone has a complicated relationship with moral reasoning, study finds

    Although some studies have linked high levels of testosterone to immoral behavior, a new study published in Nature Human Behaviour finds testosterone supplements actually made people more sensitive to moral norms, suggesting that testosterone's influence on behavior is more complicated than previously thought.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...hip-moral.html
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  8. #818
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 659


    2019 Aug 15
    Endogenous circadian regulation of female reproductive hormones.


    CONTEXT:
    Studies suggest that female reproductive hormones are under circadian regulation, although methodologic differences have led to inconsistent findings.

    OBJECTIVE:
    To determine whether circulating levels of reproductive hormones exhibit circadian rhythms.

    DESIGN:
    Blood samples were collected across ∼90 consecutive hours, including 2 baseline days under a standard sleep-wake schedule, and ∼50 hours of extended wake under constant routine (CR) conditions.

    SETTING:
    Intensive Physiological Monitoring Unit, Brigham and Women's Hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS:
    Seventeen healthy pre-menopausal women (22.8 ± 2.6 years; 9 follicular; 8 luteal).

    INTERVENTIONS:
    50-h CR.

    MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES:

    plasma estradiol (E2)
    progesterone (P4
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
    follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)
    melatonin and core
    body temperature
    RESULTS:

    All hormones exhibited significant 24-h rhythms under both standard sleep-wake and CR conditions during the follicular phase (p<0.05). In contrast, only FSH and SHBG were significantly rhythmic during the luteal phase. Rhythm acrophases and amplitudes were similar between standard sleep-wake and CR conditions. The acrophase occurred in the morning for P4, in the afternoon for FSH, LH and SHBG and during the night for E2.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our results confirm previous reports of ∼24-h rhythms in many female reproductive hormones in humans under ambulatory conditions but demonstrate that these hormones are under endogenous circadian regulation, defined as persisting in the absence of external time cues. These results may have important implications for the effects of circadian disruption on reproductive function.
    Studying a Possible Placebo Effect of an Imaginary Low-Calorie Diet

    In recent years the prevalence of obesity in developed countries has increased to the point that some authorities have coined the term “obesity epidemics.” Combining energy intake control measures (via diet) with protocols for increasing energy expenditure (predominantly via low to medium intensity aerobic exercise) proved to be the most effective approach in addressing this problem. In this experiment, we studied for a possible placebo effect of a weight loss program on changes in body mass and fat tissue in overweight or obese people. Fourteen healthy adults of both sexes aged between 19 and 45 with body mass index (BMI) > 27 participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups—one experimental and one control. The subjects in the experimental group followed an isocaloric diet but were told they were put on a calorie-deficient regimen. The subjects in the control group were aware they followed an energy-balanced diet. All participants were engaged in regular sessions of resistance exercise three times a week with total energy cost of approximately 750–900 kcal/week. We studied within-group differences of body mass, percentage of fat tissue, and BMI. All three variables reduced in value in the experimental group: body mass—9.25 ± 5.26 kg, percentage of fat tissue—3.4 ± 0.97%, and BMI—2.88 ± 1.50. No statistically significant within-group differences were measured in the control group. Despite some methodological biases of the study construct, in our opinion, a placebo effect could partially explain the changes in the experimental group.
    Introduction
    In recent years the prevalence of obesity in developed countries has increased to the point that some authorities talk about “obesity epidemics.” According to data in 2014 more than 1.9 billion adults worldwide were overweight, with over 600 million being obese (1, 2). Obesity is strongly linked with some diseases with high social impact such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (3–5). In addressing the problem, the effects of different weight-loss protocols have been extensively studied in recent years, most of them comprising interventions of hypocaloric diets and/or physical activity regimens (6–10). The most effective approach proved to be that of combining energy intake control measures (via diet) with protocols aimed at increasing energy expenditure (predominantly via low to medium intensity aerobic exercise) (11–17). Except the strictly mathematical part of the process of weight reduction (energy intake vs. energy expenditure), there are many other complex (including psychological) factors, which influence the outcomes of such interventions (18–20). The aim of this experiment was to distinguish between the metabolic and psychological/behavioral components of a weight loss intervention. Usually, in clinical studies, the combined effect of intervention plus placebo is evaluated. In our experiment, we tried to measure only a possible pure placebo effect. We used a resistance exercise protocol—an approach that is not very popular among researchers (21–23). It is easier to apply for overweight and obese sedentary people. While aerobic cyclic movements most often require the involvement of the whole body, which is hard and in some cases impossible to achieve in such subjects, resistance exercise allows for dosing and targeting efforts to particular parts of the body and are less energy efficient.

    Our hypothesis was that a nonrandom effect different than that of energy restriction and physical activity existed. More specifically, we tested for a pure placebo effect in a weight reduction therapy.


    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...019.00550/full
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 16-08-19 o 15:06
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  9. #819
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 659
    Wtedy Bóg rzekł:
    Niechaj się stanie światłość!

    I stała się światłość.
    Shedding light on how the human eye perceives brightness



    Brightness perception can be explained by the summation of a non-linear luminance term and a linear melanopsin term, suggesting that melanopsin signal may express the absolute brightness level. Credit: Yokohama National University
    Japanese scientists are shedding new light on the importance of light-sensing cells in the retina that process visual information. The researchers isolated the functions of melanopsin cells and demonstrated their crucial role in the perception of the visual environment. This ushers in a new understanding of the biology of the eye and how visual information is processed.
    he findings could contribute to more effective therapies for complications that relate to the eye. They can also serve as the basis for developing lighting and display systems. The research was published in Scientific Reports on May 20th, 2019.

    The back of the human eye is lined with the retina, a layer of various types of cells called photoreceptors that respond to different amounts of light. The cells that process a lot of light are called cones and those that process lower levels of light are rods.

    Until recently, researchers thought that when light struck the retina, rods and cones were the only two kinds of cells that reacted. Recent discoveries have revealed an entirely new type of cells called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Unlike rods and cones, ipRGCs contain melanopsin, a photopigment that is sensitive to light. While it has been established that ipRGCs are involved in keeping the brain's internal clock in sync with changes in daylight, their importance in the detection of the amount of light had not yet been well understood.

    "Until now, the role of retinal melanopsin cells and how they contribute to the perception of the brightness of light have been unclear," said Katsunori Okajima, a professor at the Faculty of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University and one of the authors of the study.

    "We've found that melanopsin plays a crucial role on the human ability to see how well-lit the environment is. These findings are redefining the conventional system of light detection that so far has only taken into consideration two variables, namely brightness and the amount of incoming light. Our results suggest that brightness perception should rely on a third variable—the intensity of a stimulus that targets melanopsin."

    In the study, the authors showed how cones and melanopsin combine to allow the perception of brightness. In order to better assess the contribution of melanopsin to the detection of light, the melanopsin's signals were isolated from cones and rods. This separation allowed for more accurate observation of the melanopsin signal alone. Visual stimuli were carefully designed and positioned in order to specifically stimulate the light-sensitive chemical. Also, the researchers used tracking software to measure study participants' pupil diameters under each visual stimulus. This served as a way to determine the relationship between brightness perception and the actual visual stimulus intensity on the retina.

    The researchers were able to show that the varying brightness levels of an image that was perceived is a sum of the melanopsin response and the response that is generated by the cones. The former is a linear readout and the latter is not. The results also show that melanopsin is not a minor contributor in brightness perception. Rather, it is a crucial player in brightness perception.
    notabene czujnika ipRGCs:

    16 August 2019
    Blue Light disrupts the circadian rhythm and create damage in skin cells

    Abstract
    On a daily basis, the skin is exposed to many environmental stressors and insults. Over a 24‐hr natural cycle, during the day, the skin is focused on protection; while at night, the skin is focused on repairing damage that occurred during daytime and getting ready for the next morning. Circadian rhythm provides the precise timing mechanism for engaging those different pathways necessary to keep a healthy skin through clock genes that are present in all skin cells. The strongest clue for determining cellular functions timing is through sensing light or absence of light (darkness). Here, we asked the question if blue light could be a direct entrainment signal to skin cells and also disrupt their circadian rhythm at night. Through a reporter assay for per1 transcription, we demonstrate that blue light at 410nm decreases per1 transcription in keratinocytes, showing that epidermal skin cells can sense light directly and control their own clock gene expression. This triggers cells to “think” it is daytime even at nighttime. Elsewhere, we measured different skin cell damage due to blue light exposure (at different doses and times of exposure) versus cells that were kept in full darkness. We show an increase of ROS production, DNA damage and inflammatory mediators. These deleterious effects can potentially increase overall skin damage over time and ultimately accelerates aging.
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...1111/ics.12572


    How Acute Sleep Loss Affects the Endocrine System

    There is an increasing amount of research on how a lack of sleep impacts endocrine system from increasing obesity to contributing to diabetes. Johnathan Cedernaes, PhD, discusses his research on this subject and what it means for the sleepless patients as well as the clinicians who treat them.
    https://endocrinenews.endocrine.org/...ocrine-system/
    correlation doesn't imply causation

Uprawnienia umieszczania postów

  • Nie możesz zakładać nowych tematów
  • Nie możesz pisać wiadomości
  • Nie możesz dodawać załączników
  • Nie możesz edytować swoich postów
  •  

Dołącz do nas na FB

Partnerzy

MMA odzywki sklep plany treningowe spalacz tłuszczu legginsy