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Wątek: NATURALNE sposoby optymalizacji CIAŁA i DUSZY.

  1. #751
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
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    1 503
    Ultradźwięki wspomagają uwalnianie nagromadzonej insuliny z komórek beta



    Naukowcy z Uniwersytetu Jerzego Waszyngtona zaprezentowali całkowicie nowe podejście do leczenia wczesnej cukrzycy typu 2. Wykazali, że za pomocą terapii ultradźwiękowej można stymulować u myszy wydzielanie insuliny na żądanie.

    Wystawiając trzustkę na oddziaływanie pulsów ultradźwiękowych, zaobserwowano mierzalne wzrosty poziomu insuliny we krwi.

    Zespół ma zaprezentować uzyskane wyniki na dorocznej konferencji Amerykańskiego Towarzystwa Akustycznego w Louisville.

    Gdy poziom glukozy rośnie, np. po posiłku, komórki beta wysp trzustkowych nasilają produkcję insuliny. Na początkowych etapach rozwoju cukrzycy typu 2. komórki beta stają się jednak przeciążone, co wiąże się z akumulacją insuliny. By nie dopuścić, aby nagromadzenie hormonu zniszczyło komórki beta, można próbować wspomagać uwalnianie insuliny lekami. Tania Singh uważa, że chcąc uniknąć skutków ubocznych leków, w tym miejscu warto sięgnąć właśnie po ultradźwięki.

    Podczas testów po sesji ultradźwiękowej obserwowano znaczące wzrosty stężenia insuliny we krwi.

    W ramach przyszłych badań naukowcy chcą ocenić, czy terapia pulsami ultradźwiękowymi nie uszkadza trzustki i/lub okolicznych narządów.

    Co ciekawe, choć ekipa Singh zauważyła wzrost poziomu insuliny we krwi, nie towarzyszył temu spadek stężenia glukozy. Akademicy zamierzają się wkrótce zająć tą kwestią.

    Singh chce również rozszerzyć badania na większe zwierzęta.
    https://kopalniawiedzy.pl/cukrzyca-t...ia-Singh,30088

    Przetworzona żywność powoduje, że jemy więcej i tyjemy


    Badania przeprowadzone w amerykańskim Narodowym Instytucie Cukrzycy, Chorób Nerek i Układu Pokarmowego (NIDDK) sugerują, że wysoko przetworzona żywność przemysłowa powoduje, że więcej jemy i przybieramy na wadze.

    Podczas pierwszych randomizowanych kontrolowanych badań tego typu zauważono, że osoby spożywające wysoko przetworzoną żywność przybierały na wadze bardziej, niż osoby jedzące pokarmy mniej przetworzone, nawet jeśli dostarczane im pożywienie zawierało tyle samo kalorii i składników odżywczych.

    W eksperymencie przeprowadzonym w siedzibie NIDDK wzięło udział 20 dorosłych zdrowych ochotników. Każdemu z nich zaoferowano 6000 USD za rezygnację z części wolności. Mieli oni przez 28 dni mieszkać na terenie NIDDK, nie mogli go opuszczać i jedli tylko to, co otrzymywali od badaczy.

    Na potrzeby badań skorzystano z systemu klasyfikacji żywności NOVA, który za „ultraprzetworzone” uznaje to pożywienie, które w przeważającej mierze zawiera składniki występujace w fabrycznie wytwarzanej żywności, takie jak tłuszcze utwardzone, syrop glukozowo-fruktozowy, wzmacniacze smaku i zapachu czy emulgatory.

    Wcześniejsze badania obserwacyjne prowadzone na dużych grupach ludności wykazały istnienie korelacji pomiędzy spożywaniem wysoko przetworzonej żywności a występowaniem różnych problemów zdrowotnych. Jednak, jako że osoby, od których pozyskiwano dane, nie były losowo przydzielana do grup spożywających określone rodzaje pożywienia, nie można było jednoznacznie stwierdzić, czy to sama wysoko przetworzona żywność powoduje problemy, czy też ludzie, którzy ją spożywają maja problemy z innego powodu, np. dlatego, że nie spożywają świeżych warzyw i owoców. Dlatego też w NIDDK przeprowadzono ściśle kontrolowany eksperyment.

    Wzięło w nim udział 10 kobiet i 10 mężczyzn, których rozlosowano do dwóch grup. Jedna grupa przez 2 tygodnia jadła wysoko przetworzone pokarmy, druga grupa jadła pokarmy minimalnie przetworzone. Po dwóch tygodniach dietę oby grup zamieniano. Każdy uczestnik badania mógł zjeść tyle ile chciał. Posiłek wysoko przetworzony mógł np. składać się z bagietek z serkiem topionym i bekonem, miało przetworzony zaś z płatków owsianych z mlekiem, owocami i orzechami. Oba rodzaje pożywienia miały tyle samo kalorii i składników odżywczych. Ponadto uczestnicy badania otrzymali luźne ubrania, by nie mogli obserwować ewentualnych zmian swojej wagi.

    Badania wykazały, że osoby jedzące żywność wysoko przetworzoną, spożywali jej więcej, zatem pochłaniali więcej kalorii i bardziej przybierali na wadze.

    Chcemy też sprawdzić, jak poszczególne elementy wysoko przetworzonej diety wpływają na zachowania związane z odżywianiem się i na przybieranie na wadze. Naszym kolejnym krokiem będzie zaprojektowanie podobnych eksperymentów z różnymi dietami wysoko przetworzonymi, by sprawdzić, czy będzie to miało wpływ na ilość spożywanych kalorii i wagę, mówi doktor Kevin D. Hall, główny autor badań. Nie można bowiem wykluczyć, że różnice w spożywanych kaloriach pomiędzy dietami wysoko i nisko przetworzonymi są spowodowane niewielkimi różnicami w ilości białek w obu dietach.

    Z czasem różnice takie mogą się akumulować, prowadzić do przybierania na wadze i problemów zdrowotnych, stwierdza dyrektor NIDDK Griffin P. Rodgers. Mimo, że to kolejne wyniki badań sugerujące, że wysoko przetworzona żywność jest szkodliwa, ich autorzy przyznają, że ograniczenie tego typu żywności może być trudne. Musimy pamiętać, że przygotowanie mniej przetworzonego posiłku wymaga więc pieniędzy i czasu. Powiedzenie ludziom, by zdrowo się odżywiali nie przyniesie efektu, jeśli nie będą mieli dostępu do zdrowej żywności, dodaje Hall.
    Stan zapalny u kobiet wywołuje utratę zdolności odczuwania przyjemności, u mężczyzn efekt nie występuje

    Autorzy artykułu z pisma Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging dodają, że obniżona aktywność mózgowego ośrodka nagrody jest oznaką anhedonii, jednego z objawów depresji. Polega ona na utracie zdolności odczuwania przyjemności i radości.

    U kobiet depresja jest diagnozowana 2-3-krotnie częściej. Nowe ustalenia mogą w pewnym stopniu wyjaśnić, skąd biorą się międzypłciowe różnice w tym zakresie.

    Nasze badanie jako pierwsze pokazuje, że w obecności stanu zapalnego istnieją międzypłciowe różnice w nerwowej wrażliwości na nagrodę […] – podkreśla dr Naomi Eisenberger z Uniwersytetu Kalifornijskiego w Los Angeles.

    W eksperymencie wzięło udział 115 osób, w tym 69 kobiet. Wylosowano je do 2 grup, którym podawano placebo lub niską dawkę wywołującej stan zapalny endotoksyny. Dwie godziny później ochotnicy wykonywali złożone zadanie (grali, by zdobyć nagrodę pieniężną) w skanerze do fMRI.

    Naukowcy monitorowali aktywność brzusznego prążkowia (ang. ventral striatum, VS), które należy do tzw. układu nagrody. Okazało się, że u kobiet endotoksyna prowadziła do obniżonej aktywności VS podczas przewidywania nagrody. Zjawiska nie zaobserwowano u mężczyzn.

    U kobiet, ale nie u mężczyzn, z grupy dostającej endotoksynę spadki aktywności VS podczas przewidywania nagrody wiązały się ze wzrostem stanu zapalnego.

    To sugeruje, że przez zmniejszenie wrażliwości na nagrodę kobiety z przewlekłym stanem zapalnym mogą być szczególnie podatne na wystąpienie depresji. Klinicyści zajmujący się kobietami z zaburzeniami zapalnymi powinni [więc] bacznie monitorować pacjentki pod kątem możliwych początków objawów depresyjnych – zaznacza dr Mona Moieni.
    Gniew i złość pogarsza zdrowie bardziej niż smutek

    Osoby w starszym wieku mają zwykle wiele powodów do narzekań. Utrata bliskich osób zwiększa ryzyko samotności, stan zdrowia często nie pozwala już na kontynuowanie dotychczasowego trybu życia. Okazuje się jednak, że sama reakcja na rosnące ograniczenia może istotnie wpływać na samopoczucie seniorów. Wyniki badań naukowców z Concordia University w Montrealu wskazują na to, że osoby reagujące gniewem i złością szkodzą swojemu zdrowiu bardziej niż te, które odczuwają smutek. Pisze o tym w najnowszym numerze czasopismo „Psychology and Aging”.

    W miarę upływu lat i starzenia się większość z nas musi stopniowo ograniczać formy aktywności. Utrata bliskiej osoby, kłopoty z poruszaniem się mogą prowadzić do złości. Nasze badania pokazały, że o ile złość może prowadzić do nasilenia się przewlekłych chorób, sam smutek takich efektów nie przynosi – mówi pierwsza autorka pracy, Meaghan Barlow. Zdaniem autorów, złość zwiększa ryzyko procesów zapalnych i w ten sposób przyczynia się do dalszego pogorszenia stanu zdrowia, między innymi zwiększenia ryzyka chorób serca, zapalenia stawów, czy chorób nowotworowych.

    Barlow wraz ze współpracownikami badała wpływ emocji, złości lub smutku, na procesy zapalne, reakcję mechanizmu odpornościowego organizmu na infekcje, czy uszkodzenie tkanek. Procesy zapalne zwykle pomagają w obronie organizmu i gojeniu się ran, jeśli jednak przejdą w fazę przewlekłą zwiększają ryzyko przewlekłych chorób.

    W eksperymencie uczestniczyło 226 osób w wieku od 59 do 93 lat, podzielonych na dwie grupy wiekowe, do 79 lat i powyżej. Przez tydzień badani wypełniali ankiety z pytaniami między innymi o towarzyszące im emocje gniewu lub smutku. Towarzyszył temu wywiad medyczny dotyczący związanych z wiekiem przewlekłych chorób i badania próbek krwi pod kątem markerów procesów zapalnych. Wyniki eksperymentu pokazały, że uczucia złości wiązały się z wyższym poziomem markerów procesów zapalnych i większym ryzykiem przewlekłych chorób u osób od 80 roku życia wzwyż. Takiego efektu nie obserwowano u osób nieco młodszych – dodaje współautor pracy, prof. Carsten Wrosch z Faculty of Arts and Science CU.

    Naukowcy zwracają uwagę na to, że negatywne emocje, zarówno uczucie gniewu, jak i smutek, są formą radzenia sobie z pogarszającym się stanem zdrowia, nie tylko fizycznym, ale też psychicznym. O ile gniew ma działanie mobilizujące, smutek pomaga pogodzić się z sytuacją i zrezygnować z wyznaczania sobie celów, które są już nie do osiągnięcia. Każda z tych emocji może okazać się w określonych okolicznościach pożyteczna. Nieco młodszym seniorom złość może pomóc pokonywać wyzwania, w starszym jednak wieku, powyżej 80 lat, zaczyna jednak przynosić więcej szkody niż pożytku. Wtedy pewnych strat nie da się już nadrobić – dodaje Barlow.

    Zdaniem autorów pracy, konieczne jest lepsze zrozumienie mechanizmów, które kierują emocjami starszych osób. Edukacja i ewentualna terapia powinny pomóc obniżyć poziom stresu tam, gdzie nie przynosi pożytku, a same straty.
    https://losyziemi.pl/gniew-i-zlosc-p...iej-niz-smutek

    Chronic caffeine exposure in adolescence promotes diurnal, biphasic mood-cycling and enhanced motivation for reward in adult mice.

    Abstract
    Adolescent's consumption of caffeine and caffeinated beverage is increasing, yet little is known about the consequences of chronic caffeine exposure during the critical development period of adolescence. In the present study, we investigated the effect of beginning chronic caffeine consumption in adolescence on locomotor, mood, sensorimotor gating, and reward seeking behaviors through adolescence and in adulthood. During the light cycle, caffeine exposed mice exhibited hypoactivity in a novel open-field box and increased anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, while maintaining normal home cage locomotor activity. In contrast, during the dark cycle caffeine exposed mice displayed normal locomotor activity in a novel open-field box with hyperactive home cage activity. Interestingly, we found that caffeine exposed mice also showed enhanced prepulse inhibition during the light cycle whereas they displayed a deficit of prepulse inhibition during the dark cycle. Reward seeking for sucrose was higher in caffeine exposed than control mice during the light cycle. Additionally, when granted 24 -h access to ethanol as adults, caffeine exposed mice consumed more ethanol in the absence of acute caffeine use. Altogether, mice that consumed chronic caffeine beginning in adolescence had increased reward seeking and exhibited a circadian-dependent pattern of mood fluctuations in adulthood.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31095992?dopt=

    WHY SOME DOCTORS ARE PRESCRIBING A DAY IN THE PARK OR A WALK ON THE BEACH FOR GOOD HEALTH



    Taking a walk on a wooded path, spending an afternoon in a public park, harvesting your backyard garden and even looking at beautiful pictures of Hawaii can all make us feel good. Certainly, for many of us, it’s beneficial to have time outside in natural environments. Being cooped up inside can feel unnatural and increase our desire to get outside. The renowned biologist E.O. Wilson created a theory called the biophilia hypothesis, where he stated that people have an innate relationship to nature.

    On an intuitive level, this makes sense. Humans evolved in an open, natural environment and removing us from this environment could have a negative effect on our health. But what does the research say? Is there actually evidence that being in natural environments can promote our well-being, prevent disease and speed recovery?
    https://www.universal-sci.com/headli...or-good-health


    Effect of skipping breakfast for 6 days on energy metabolism and diurnal rhythm of blood glucose in young healthy Japanese males.

    BACKGROUND:
    Skipping breakfast has become a common trend that may lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previous studies, which imposed a single incidence of breakfast skipping, did not observe any decrease in 24-h energy expenditure. Furthermore, the effects of breakfast skipping on diurnal blood glucose profiles over 24 h are contradictory.

    OBJECTIVE:
    The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of 6 consecutive days of breakfast skipping and sedentary behavior on energy metabolism and glycemic control.

    METHODS:
    Ten young men participated in 2 trials (with or without breakfast) that lasted for 6 consecutive days, and the 2 trials were conducted 1 wk apart with a repeated-measures design. During the meal intervention, each subject's blood glucose was measured using the continuous glucose monitoring system. If breakfast was skipped, subjects ate large meals at lunch and dinner such that the 24-h energy intake was identical to that of the 3-meal condition. At 2200 on the fifth day, the subjects entered a room-sized respiratory chamber, where they remained for 33 h, and were instructed to carry out sedentary behavior.

    RESULTS:
    The glucose levels were similar between the 2 meal conditions during the first 5 d of meal intervention, but the blood glucose at 2300 was higher in the breakfast-skipping condition than in the 3-meal condition. Breakfast skipping elevated postprandial glycemic response after lunch on the first day of meal intervention. On the sixth day, there were no significant differences in 24-h energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. When subjects remained in a metabolic chamber, the level of physical activity significantly decreased, glycemic stability slightly deteriorated, and mean blood glucose over 24 h was higher in the breakfast-skipping trial than in the 3-meal trial.

    CONCLUSIONS:
    Sedentary lifestyle and repeated breakfast skipping caused abnormal glucose fluctuations, whereas 24-h energy metabolism remained unaffected
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/...?dopt=Abstract


    Low-Carbohydrate Training Increases Protein Requirements of Endurance Athletes

    Introduction Training with low-carbohydrate (CHO) availability enhances markers of aerobic adaptation and has become popular to periodize throughout an endurance-training program. However, exercise-induced amino acid oxidation is increased with low muscle glycogen, which may limit substrate availability for post-exercise protein synthesis. We aimed to determine the impact of training with low-CHO availability on estimates of dietary protein requirements.

    Methods Eight endurance-trained males (27±4y, 75±10kg, 67±10ml·kg body mass-1·min-1) completed two trials matched for energy and macronutrient composition but with differing CHO periodization. In the low-CHO availability trial (LOW), participants consumed 7.8g CHO·kg-1 prior to evening high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 10 x 5 min at 10-km race pace, 1 min rest) and subsequently withheld CHO post-exercise (0.2g·kg-1). In the high-CHO availability trial (HIGH), participants consumed 3g CHO·kg-1during the day before HIIT, and consumed 5g CHO·kg-1that evening to promote muscle glycogen resynthesis. A 10km run (~80% HRmax) was performed the following morning, fasted (LOW) or 1h after consuming 1.2g CHO·kg-1 (HIGH). Whole-body phenylalanine flux (PheRa) and oxidation (PheOx) were determined over 8h of recovery via oral [13C]phenylalanine ingestion, according to standard indicator amino acid oxidation methodology, while consuming sufficient energy, 7.8g CHO·kg-1·d-1, and suboptimal protein (0.93g·kg-1·d-1).

    Results Fat oxidation (indirect calorimetry) during the 10-km run was higher in LOW compared to HIGH (0.99±0.35 vs. 0.60±0.26 g·min-1, p<0.05). PheRa during recovery was not different between trials (p>0.05) whereas PheOX (reciprocal of protein synthesis) was higher in LOW compared to HIGH (8.8±2.7 vs. 7.9±2.4 umol·kg-1·h-1, p<0.05), suggesting a greater amino acid requirement to support rates of whole-body protein synthesis.

    Conclusion Our findings suggest that performing endurance exercise with low-CHO availability increases protein requirements of endurance athletes.
    https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/A...ein.96605.aspx

    Social-Stress-Responsive Microbiota Induces Stimulation of Self-Reactive Effector T Helper Cells

    Stressful life events are considered a risk factor for autoimmune disorders, though the mechanisms are unclear. Here we demonstrate that chronic social stress induces virulence-associated transcriptional patterns in the murine gut microbiota. The stress-influenced microbiota increased the presence of effector T helper cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes, including myelin-autoreactive cells. Inhibition of the bacterial quorum sensor QseC, which is also responsive to norepinephrine, diminished the presence of effector T helper cells and bacteria such as Acinetobacter in the mesenteric lymph nodes, without remarkably affecting the gut microbial composition. Together, our results delineate a model in which the immune reaction to stress-responsive microbiota may compromise tolerance to self and therefore may increase the risk for autoimmune diseases in susceptible individuals.
    https://msystems.asm.org/content/4/4/e00292-18

    correlation doesn't imply causation

  2. #752
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 503
    19 May 2019
    Light and the circadian rhythm: The key to a good night's sleep?

    by:
    Russell Foster is a fellow of the Royal Society and the Academy of Medical Sciences. He is also a professor of Circadian Neuroscience and the head of the Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, which is part of the University of Oxford.
    n a review published May 17 in the journal Trends in Immunology, researchers discuss how time of day affects the severity of afflictions ranging from allergies to heart attacks.

    Researchers in Switzerland compiled studies, predominantly in mice, that looked at the connection between circadian rhythms and immune responses. For example, studies showed that adaptive immune responses—in which highly specialized, pathogen-fighting cells develop over weeks—are under circadian control. This is "striking," says senior author Christoph Scheiermann, an immunologist at the University of Geneva, "and should have relevance for clinical applications, from transplants to vaccinations."

    The body reacts to cues such as light and hormones to anticipate recurring rhythms of sleep, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In both humans and mice, the numbers of white blood cells also oscillate in a circadian manner, raising the question of whether it might be possible one day to optimize immune response through awareness and utilization of the circadian clock.

    In separate studies that compared immune cell time-of-day rhythms under normal conditions, inflammation, and disease, researchers found that:

    Heart attacks in humans are known to strike most commonly in the morning, and research suggests that morning heart attacks tend to be more severe than at night. In mice, the numbers of monocytes—a type of white blood cell that fights off bacteria, viruses, and fungi—are elevated in the blood during the day. At night, monocytes are elevated in infarcted heart tissue, resulting in decreased cardiac protection at that time of day relative to morning.

    The ability of immune cells to fight atherosclerotic plaques can depend on CCR2—a chemokine protein linked to immune function and inflammation. CCR2 exhibits a daily rhythm in mice, peaking in the morning, and based on its influence on immune cells, can be followed to understand white blood cell behaviors in mouse models of atherosclerosis.
    Parasite infections are time-of-day dependent. Mice infected with the gastrointestinal parasite Trichuris muris in the morning have been able to kill worms significantly faster than mice infected in the evening.

    A bacterial toxin tied to pneumonia initiates an inflammatory response in the lungs of mice. Recruitment of immune cells during lung inflammation displays a circadian oscillation pattern. Separately, more monocytes can be recruited into the peritoneal cavity, spleen, and liver in the afternoon, thus resulting in enhanced bacterial clearance at that time.

    Allergic symptoms follow a time-of-day dependent rhythmicity, generally worse between midnight and early morning. Hence, the molecular clock can physiologically drive innate immune cell recruitment and the outcomes of asthma in humans, or airway inflammation in mice—the review notes.

    "Investigating circadian rhythms in innate and adaptive immunity is a great tool to generally understand the physiological interplay and time-dependent succession of events in generating immune responses," Scheiermann says. "The challenge lies in how to channel our growing mechanistic understanding of circadian immunology into time-tailored therapies for human patients."
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ing-night.html


    2019 May 16
    Association of Sunlight Exposure with Sleep Hours in Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-V Study.

    We aimed to assess the association of sunlight exposure with sleep duration and sleep onset time in children. Data were obtained from the fifth survey of a national school-based surveillance program in Iran. Sunlight exposure time, sleep duration, sleep onset time, physical activity time, mental health status and frequency of consuming coffee and tea were recorded. Overall, 14 274 students aged 7-18 years were recruited. Sleep duration was associated positively with sex, age, body mass index and physical activity, as well as with sunlight exposure and negatively with the consumption of coffee and tea. Higher physical activity, exposure to sunlight and mental status score in children exposed to sunlight via their face, hands, arms and feet, reduced the likelihood of sleep onset time after midnight (odds ratio (OR) = 0.909, 0.741 and 0.554 respectively). Daily exposure to sunlight may increase sleep duration and advance the sleep onset time in children and adolescents.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/...?dopt=Abstract

    Sleep duration tied to adverse measures of glycemia

    Self-reported short and long sleep are both associated with adverse measures of glycemia among adults with prediabetes, according to a study published online May 10 in Diabetes Care.

    Babak Mokhlesi, M.D., from the University of Chicago, and colleagues assessed the effect of sleep disturbances and circadian misalignment on adults with prediabetes. The analysis included 962 overweight/obese adults (55 percent male; mean age, 52.2 years) with prediabetes or recently diagnosed, untreated type 2 diabetes who completed a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test and validated sleep questionnaires.

    The researchers found that mean sleep duration was 6.6 hours. More than half of participants reported poor sleep quality (54 percent) and high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (64 percent). Among those reporting less than five hours or more than eight hours of sleep per night, hemoglobin A1c was significantly higher. There was also an association between sleep duration of more than eight hours and higher fasting glucose and between sleep duration of less than six hours and higher body mass index.

    "Further research using objective measures of sleep is needed to better
    delineate the relationship between sleep and glycemia in adults with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes," the authors write.
    Exercising with low muscle glycogen content increases fat oxidation and decreases endogenous, but not exogenous carbohydrate oxidation.

    BACKGROUND:
    Initiating aerobic exercise with low muscle glycogen content promotes greater fat and less endogenous carbohydrate oxidation during exercise. However, the extent exogenous carbohydrate oxidation increases when exercise is initiated with low muscle glycogen is unclear.

    PURPOSE:
    Determine the effects of muscle glycogen content at the onset of exercise on whole-body and muscle substrate metabolism.

    METHODS:
    Using a randomized, crossover design, 12 men (mean ± SD, age: 21 ± 4 y; body mass: 83 ± 11 kg; VO2peak: 44 ± 3 mL/kg/min) completed 2 cycle ergometry glycogen depletion trials separated by 7-d, followed by a 24-h refeeding to elicit low (LOW; 1.5 g/kg carbohydrate, 3.0 g/kg fat) or adequate (AD; 6.0 g/kg carbohydrate, 1.0 g/kg fat) glycogen stores. Participants then performed 80-min of steady-state cycle ergometry (64 ± 3% VO2peak) while consuming a carbohydrate drink (95 g glucose +51 g fructose; 1.8 g/min). Substrate oxidation (g/min) was determined by indirect calorimetry and 13C. Muscle glycogen (mmol/kg dry weight), pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and gene expression were assessed in muscle.

    RESULTS:
    Initiating steady-state exercise with LOW (217 ± 103) or AD (396 ± 70; P < 0.05) muscle glycogen did not alter exogenous carbohydrate oxidation (LOW: 0.84 ± 0.14, AD: 0.87 ± 0.16; P > 0.05) during exercise. Endogenous carbohydrate oxidation was lower and fat oxidation was higher in LOW (0.75 ± 0.29 and 0.55 ± 0.10) than AD (1.17 ± 0.29 and 0.38 ± 0.13; all P < 0.05). Before and after exercise PDH activity was lower (P < 0.05) and transcriptional regulation of fat metabolism (FAT, FABP, CPT1a, HADHA) was higher (P < 0.05) in LOW than AD.

    CONCLUSION:
    Initiating exercise with low muscle glycogen does not impair exogenous carbohydrate oxidative capacity, rather, to compensate for lower endogenous carbohydrate oxidation acute adaptations lead to increased whole-body and skeletal muscle fat oxidation.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31095946

    nauka przez rozdupcanie:

    correlation doesn't imply causation

  3. #753
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    May 2014
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    1 503
    spacerkiem do szkoły:

    Children who walk to school less likely to be overweight or obese, study suggests

    Children who regularly walk or cycle to school are less likely to be overweight or obese than those who travel by car or public transport, a new study suggests.

    Based on results from more than 2000 primary-age schoolchildren from across London, the researchers found that walking or cycling to school is a strong predictor of obesity levels, a result which was consistent across neighbourhoods, ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds. The results are reported in the journal BMC Public Health.

    The study, led by researchers from the University of Cambridge, is the first to assess the impact of physical activity on childhood overweight and obesity levels for primary schoolchildren by simultaneously relating two of the main types of extracurricular physical activity: daily commuting to school and frequency of participation in sport.

    Instead of using Body-mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity, the researchers measured body fat and muscle mass and assessed how these were correlated with physical activity levels. BMI is the most commonly-used metric to measure obesity levels due to its simplicity, however, it is limited as BMI looks at total weight, including 'healthy' muscle mass, rather than fat mass alone.

    "Both BMI itself and the points at which high BMI is associated with poor health vary with age, sex and ethnicity," said Lander Bosch, a Ph.D. candidate in Cambridge's Department of Geography, and the study's first author. "While adjustments have been made in recent years to account for these variations, BMI remains a flawed way to measure the health risks associated with obesity."

    The current research is based on data from the Size and Lung Function in Children (SLIC) study, carried out at University College London between 2010 and 2013. More than 2000 London primary schoolchildren, from a range of ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds, were included in the study, which looked at their physical activity levels, body composition and socioeconomic status.

    Close to half of children in the study took part in sport every day, and a similar proportion actively commuted to school, travelling on foot, by bicycle or scooter. The researchers found that children who actively commuted to school had lower body fat, and therefore were less likely to be overweight or obese.

    Paradoxically, using conventional BMI percentiles, children who took part in sport every day appeared more likely to be overweight or obese than those who engaged in sport less than once a week. However, when looking at fat mass and muscle mass separately, children who engaged in sport every day had significantly more muscle development, while their fat mass did not significantly differ.

    "The link between frequent participation in sport and obesity levels has generated inconsistent findings in previous research, but many of these studies were looking at BMI only," said Bosch. "However, when looking at body fat instead, we showed there was a trend whereby children who were not active were more likely to be overweight or obese. It's likely that when looking at BMI, some inactive children aren't classified as obese due to reduced muscle mass."

    The researchers say that it is vital to understand the relationship between obesity levels and different types of physical activity in order to develop informed policy measures that could contribute to the reversal of the childhood obesity epidemic.

    "Our findings suggest that interventions promoting regular participation in sports, and particularly active commuting to school could be promising for combating childhood obesity—it's something so easy to implement, and it makes such a big difference," said Bosch
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ght-obese.html

    Sleep problems in teenagers reversed in just one week by limiting screen use

    Sleep in teenagers can be improved by just one week of limiting their evening exposure to light-emitting screens on phones, tablets and computers, according to findings to be presented in Lyon, at the European Society of Endocrinology annual meeting, ECE 2019. The study indicates that by simply limiting their exposure to blue-light emitting devices in the evening, adolescents can improve their sleep quality and reduce symptoms of fatigue, lack of concentration and bad mood, after just one week.

    Recent studies have indicated that exposure to too much evening light, particularly the blue light emitted from screens on smartphones, tablets and computers can affect the brain's clock and the production of the sleep hormone melatonin, resulting in disrupted sleep time and quality. The lack of sleep doesn't just cause immediate symptoms of tiredness and poor concentration but can also increase the risk of more serious long-term health issues such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Other studies have suggested that sleep deprivation related to screen time may affect children and adolescents more than adults, but no studies have fully investigated how real-life exposure is affecting sleep in adolescents at home and whether it can be reversed.

    In this collaborative study between the Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience, the Amsterdam UMC and the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, researchers investigated the effects of blue light exposure on adolescents at home. Those who had more than 4 hours per day of screen time had on average 30 minutes later sleep onset and wake up times than those who recorded less than 1 hour per day of screen time, as well as more symptoms of sleep loss. The team conducted a randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of blocking blue light with glasses and no screen time during the evening on the sleep pattern of 25 frequent users. Both blocking blue light with glasses and screen abstinence resulted in sleep onset and wake up times occurring 20 minutes earlier, and a reduction in reported symptoms of sleep loss in participants, after just one week.

    Dr. Dirk Jan Stenvers from the department of Endocrinology and Metabolism of the Amsterdam UMC says, "Adolescents increasingly spend more time on devices with screens and sleep complaints are frequent in this age group. Here we show very simply that these sleep complaints can be easily reversed by minimising evening screen use or exposure to blue light. Based on our data, it is likely that adolescent sleep complaints and delayed sleep onset are at least partly mediated by blue light from screens"

    Dr. Stenvers and his colleagues are now interested in whether the relationship between reduced screen time and improved sleep has longer lasting effects, and whether the same effects can be detected in adults.

    Dr. Stenvers comments, "Sleep disturbances start with minor symptoms of tiredness and poor concentration but in the long-term we know that sleep loss is associated with increased risk of obesity, diabetes and heart disease. If we can introduce simple measures now to tackle this issue, we can avoid greater health problems in years to come."
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-limiting.html

    Walking and strength training may decrease the risk of dying from liver disease

    Physical activity, including walking and muscle-strengthening activities, were associated with significantly reduced risk of cirrhosis-related death, according to new research. Chronic liver disease is increasing, partly due to the obesity epidemic, and currently there are no guidelines for the optimal type of exercise for the prevention of cirrhosis-related mortality.
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0519162350.htm

    Metals influence C-peptide hormone related to insulin

    Metals such as zinc, copper and chromium bind to and influence a peptide involved in insulin production, according to new work from chemists at the University of California, Davis. The research is part of a new field of "metalloendocrinology" that takes a detailed look at the role of metals in biological processes in the body.
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/release...0517133514.htm


    Circadian Disruption Changes Gut Microbiome Taxa and Functional Gene Composition

    Disrupted circadian rhythms and alterations of the gut microbiome composition were proposed to affect host health. Therefore, the aim of this research was to identify whether these events are connected and if circadian rhythm disruption by abnormal light–dark (LD) cycles affects microbial community gene expression and host vulnerability to intestinal dysfunction. Mice were subjected to either a 4-week period of constant 24-h light or of normal 12-h LD cycles. Stool samples were collected at the beginning and after the circadian rhythm disruption. A metatranscriptomic analysis revealed an increase in Ruminococcus torques, a bacterial species known to decrease gut barrier integrity, and a decrease in Lactobacillus johnsonii, a bacterium that helps maintain the intestinal epithelial cell layer, after circadian rhythm disruption. In addition, genes involved in pathways promoting host beneficial immune responses were downregulated, while genes involved in the synthesis and transportation of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide were upregulated in mice with disrupted circadian cycles. Importantly, these mice were also more prone to dysfunction of the intestinal barrier. These results further elucidate the impact of light-cycle disruption on the gut microbiome and its connection with increased incidence of disease in response to circadian rhythm disturbances.
    http://snip.ly/i2du8v#https://www.nc...s_Wg5DQgeR6Tw4

    Human sebum requires de novo lipogenesis, which is increased in acne vulgaris and suppressed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition

    Sebum plays important physiological roles in human skin. Excess sebum production contributes to the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris, and suppression of sebum production reduces acne incidence and severity. We demonstrate that sebum production in humans depends on local flux through the de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathway within the sebocyte. About 80 to 85% of sebum palmitate (16:0) and sapienate (16:1n10) were derived from DNL, based on stable isotope labeling, much higher than the contribution of DNL to triglyceride palmitate in circulation (~20%), indicating a minor contribution by nonskin sources to sebum lipids. This dependence on local sebocyte DNL was not recapitulated in two widely used animal models of sebum production, Syrian hamsters and Göttingen minipigs. Confirming the importance of DNL for human sebum production, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor, ACCi-1, dose-dependently suppressed DNL and blocked synthesis of fatty acids, triglycerides, and wax esters but not free sterols in human sebocytes in vitro. ACCi-1 dose-dependently suppressed facial sebum excretion by ~50% (placebo adjusted) in human individuals dosed orally for 2 weeks. Sebum triglycerides, wax esters, and free fatty acids were suppressed by ~66%, whereas non–DNL-dependent lipid species, cholesterol, and squalene were not reduced, confirming selective modulation of DNL-dependent lipids. Last, individuals with acne vulgaris exhibited increased sebum production rates relative to individuals with normal skin, with >80% of palmitate and sapienate derived from DNL. These findings highlight the importance of local sebocyte DNL for human skin sebaceous gland biology and illuminate a potentially exploitable therapeutic target for the treatment of acne vulgaris.
    https://stm.sciencemag.org/content/11/492/eaau8465

    Researchers document impact of coffee on bowels

    Coffee drinkers know that coffee helps keep the bowels moving, but researchers in Texas are trying to find out exactly why this is true, and it doesn't seem to be about the caffeine, according to a study presented at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2019. Researchers, feeding rats coffee and also mixing it with gut bacteria in petri dishes, found that coffee suppressed bacteria and increased muscle motility, regardless of caffeine content.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ee-bowels.html
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 20-05-19 o 10:16
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  4. #754
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    May 2014
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    1 503
    Meal Timing, Aging, and Metabolic Health

    A growing body of evidence suggests that meal timing is an important factor for metabolic regulation and that the circadian clock tightly interacts with metabolic functions. The proper functioning of the circadian clock is critical for maintaining metabolic health. Therefore, chrononutrition, a novel discipline which investigates the relation between circadian rhythms, nutrition, and metabolism, has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Circadian rhythms are strongly affected by obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other dietary-induced metabolic diseases. With increasing age, the circadian system also undergoes significant changes which contribute to the dysregulation of metabolic rhythms. Metabolic diseases are a major health concern, particularly in light of a growing aging population, and effective approaches for their prevention and treatment are urgently needed. Recently, animal studies have impressively shown beneficial effects of several dietary patterns (e.g., caloric restriction or time-restricted feeding) on circadian rhythms and metabolic outcomes upon nutritional challenges. Whether these dietary patterns show the same beneficial effects in humans is, however, less well studied. As indicated by recent studies, dietary approaches might represent a promising, attractive, and easy-to-adapt strategy for the prevention and therapy of circadian and metabolic disturbances in humans of different age.

    https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/8/1911

    Anxiety might be alleviated by regulating gut bacteria

    People who experience anxiety symptoms might be helped by taking steps to regulate the microorganisms in their gut using probiotic and non-probiotic food and supplements, suggests a review of studies published today in the journal General Psychiatry.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-bacteria.html

    Do your gut microbes affect your brain dopamine?

    Increasing evidence shows changes in gut microbiota composition in association with psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. Moreover, it has been reported that perturbations in gut microbe diversity and richness influence serotonergic, GABAergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission. Among these, dopamine is regarded as a main regulator of cognitive functions such as decision making, attention, memory, motivation, and reward. In this work, we will highlight findings that link alterations in intestinal microbiota and dopaminergic neurotransmission, with a particular emphasis on the mesocorticolimbic circuit, which is involved in reward to natural reinforcers, as well as abuse substances. For this, we reviewed evidence from studies carried out on germ-free animals, or in rodents subjected to intestinal dysbiosis using antibiotics, and also through the use of probiotics. All this evidence strongly supports that the microbiota-gut-brain axis is key to the physiopathology of several neuropsychiatric disorders involving those where dopaminergic neurotransmission is compromised. In addition, the gut microbiota appears as a key player when it comes to proposing novel strategies to the treatment of these psychiatric conditions.
    https://link.springer.com/article/10...13-019-05265-5

    Stress from work, home can harm women's hearts

    Even with supportive spouses, many women still find themselves helping the kids with homework and cleaning up household messes, often while scrambling to make dinner after a 10-hour workday filled with deadlines and challenging colleagues.

    All that stress could put women at higher risk than men for having a stroke or developing diabetes, heart disease and other chronic conditions, according to a growing number of studies.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...en-hearts.html

    Heavy teen boys may face higher heart disease risk as adults

    (HealthDay)—Just a few extra pounds during adolescence may translate into higher odds for heart disease in adulthood, a new study of young men suggests.

    It included about 1.7 million Swedish men who began military service at ages 18 or 19 between 1969 and 2005. They were followed for up to 46 years.

    During the follow-up, nearly 4,500 were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy, an uncommon heart muscle condition that can lead to heart failure. Average age at diagnosis was 45.5 years.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...her-heart.html

    Obesity risk may be increased by exposure to common environmental chemicals

    Exposure to common every day chemicals, called phthalates, may increase the risk of metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes, according to findings to be presented in Lyon, at the European Society of Endocrinology annual meeting, ECE 2019
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...chemicals.html


    jajka jednak zdrowe

    Dietary cholesterol and egg consumption do not increase the risk of stroke

    A new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows that a moderately high intake of dietary cholesterol or consumption of up to one egg per day is not associated with an elevated risk of stroke. Furthermore, no association was found in carriers of the APOE4 phenotype, which affects cholesterol metabolism and is remarkably common among the Finnish population. The findings were published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...nsumption.html


    The Temperature Dependence of Sleep.

    Mammals have evolved a range of behavioural and neurological mechanisms that coordinate cycles of thermoregulation and sleep. Whether diurnal or nocturnal, sleep onset and a reduction in core temperature occur together. Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episodes are also accompanied by core and brain cooling. Thermoregulatory behaviours, like nest building and curling up, accompany this circadian temperature decline in preparation for sleeping. This could be a matter of simply comfort as animals seek warmth to compensate for lower temperatures. However, in both humans and other mammals, direct skin warming can shorten sleep-latency and promote NREM sleep. We discuss the evidence that body cooling and sleep are more fundamentally connected and that thermoregulatory behaviours, prior to sleep, form warm microclimates that accelerate NREM directly through neuronal circuits. Paradoxically, this warmth might also induce vasodilation and body cooling. In this way, warmth seeking and nesting behaviour might enhance the circadian cycle by activating specific circuits that link NREM initiation to body cooling. We suggest that these circuits explain why NREM onset is most likely when core temperature is at its steepest rate of decline and why transitions to NREM are accompanied by a decrease in brain temperature. This connection may have implications for energy homeostasis and the function of sleep.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/...?dopt=Abstract
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  5. #755
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    Mar 2017
    Lokalizacja
    pomorskie
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    1 682
    Czytam pedalski, to z entuzjazmem zajrzałem a tu dupa, ciągle to samo.

  6. #756
    I jeszcze po zagramanicznemu..

  7. #757
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    May 2014
    Postów
    1 503
    Cytat Zamieszczone przez paavo Zobacz posta
    Czytam pedalski, to z entuzjazmem zajrzałem a tu dupa, ciągle to samo.
    wybacz przyjacielu, że ciągle o tej tęczy pierdole .. w zasadzie to mi się powoli nudzi więc temat w najbliższym czasie pójdzie pewnie do zamknięcia.

    więc żeby zasiać ziarno niepewności powiem tak:

    Circadian mechanism may not be driver behind compound linked to obesity and diabetes

    SR9009 is a compound that can lead to a wide range of health benefits in animals, including reduced risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Until now, researchers—and companies that sell the compound for human use in the form of a nutraceutical—have attributed the effects to SR9009's role in altering the body's circadian clock, specifically its work through proteins called REV-ERBS that link metabolism and circadian rhythm. However, in a first-of-its-kind study from Penn Medicine, published today in PNAS, researchers found that SR9009 can effect cell growth and metabolic function without the involvement of REV-ERBs.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...nd-linked.html

    pisałem, że insulina jest hormonem solarnym, ale więcej śmiechu było niż powagi, więc teraz z przytupem, a jednocześnie żeby uspokoić

    "a słowo ciałem się stało"
    Insulin under the influence of light



    The disruption of internal clocks seems to play a significant role in the explosion of metabolic diseases observed in recent decades, particularly diabetes. Scientists have improved understanding of the importance of day-night alternation on the effect of insulin and the body's glycemic management, but what about the mechanisms involved? How does the organism synchronize its clocks?

    By understanding how the brain links the effects of insulin to light, researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) are deciphering how insulin sensitivity fluctuates according to circadian cycles, but also according to the organs involved. At the heart of their discovery are neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, a part of the brain that masters this delicate balance. These results, to be reported in the journal Cell Reports, should also encourage diabetic patients and their doctors to consider the best time to take insulin to properly control its effect and limit the risk of hypoglycemia.

    The balance between the secretion and action of hormones is essential for the body to function properly. Thus, the secretion of several hormones, including insulin, varies over a 24-hour period and any change in this rhythm seems to predispose to metabolic diseases. To synchronize itself, the body takes into account two essential elements: the alternation of light and darkness as well as that of feeding and fasting. Indeed, the light perceived by retinal neurons is transmitted to the brain, which in turn regulates the peripheral clocks located throughout the body.

    "Our hypothesis was that insulin sensitivity varies according to the daily 24-hour cycle, but also according to the tissues. Since we already knew that some neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH)—a region of the hypothalamus—controls the sympathetic nervous system output to skeletal muscle in mice, we looked at these neurons—called VMH SF1 neurons—in regulating insulin action in this tissue," explains Roberto Coppari, professor at the Diabetes Centre of UNIGE Faculty of Medicine, who led this work.

    From the brain to the organs: different mechanisms depending on the tissue

    First, the scientists performed a complete evaluation of insulin action in different tissues in mice (gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, both located in the leg, adipose tissue, and liver) and observed significant variation in all tissues involved. By keeping mice in a cycle of 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness, insulin sensitivity was logically the lowest during the rest period.

    They repeated the same measurements on animals in which the SIRT1 gene (a gene linked to the regulation of core clock molecular components) was deleted only in the few thousands of VMH SF1 neurons. "Indeed, we already knew that mice with an alteration of this gene in VMH SF1 neurons had propensity to insulin resistance. But by which mechanism?" says Giorgio Ramadori, a researcher at the Diabetes Centre and the first author of this study.

    By modulating the time of exposure to light, the researchers demonstrated that the SIRT1 gene of the VMH SF1 neurons plays a key role in the action of insulin in the gastrocnemius muscle, but not in other tissues, Roberto Coppari says. "This teaches us two things: On the one hand, different neurons have the task of conveying light/darkness cycle inputs to diverse organs, but on the other hand, the disruption of only one of these regulatory pathways is enough to increase the individual's risk of developing diabetes."

    To better assess the effect of light on tissue sensitivity to insulin, researchers measured insulin-induced glucose absorption. It turns out that a small disturbance in photic inputs (e.g. an hour of light exposure in the middle of the dark cycle, or light removal for two days) is enough to cause a negative effect. Indeed, increased or decreased light exposure can profoundly influence the sensitivity of tissues to insulin and the alteration, however minimal, of this mechanism is sufficient to significantly disrupt metabolic homeostasis. This would explain why people exposed to light at the wrong time—workers in shift patterns, for example—are more likely to develop metabolic diseases (e.g. diabetes).

    Taking into account the time of day

    Today, more than 450 million people worldwide have diabetes and many of them need daily insulin injections. When endogenous insulin is not produced in sufficient amounts, such as in people with type 1 diabetes insulin, therapy is the only treatment available, but this approach is not without risk—including potentially severe hypoglycemia that can lead to coma and even death.

    "In practice, the amount of insulin administered to patients is calculated on the basis of carbohydrate intake," says Roberto Coppari. If, as our results indicate, insulin sensitivity varies with time of day and individuals' circadian rhythm, this parameter should be taken into account for patients to better manage their treatment and limit its risks. "Beyond insulin, the influence of time of day on the effectiveness of drug treatments should be studied much more broadly."
    a jakby komuś za pedalsko się zrobiło

    الله أكبر

    Dawn-to-sunset fasting suggests potential new treatment for obesity-related conditions

    Fasting from dawn to sunset for 30 days increased levels of proteins that play a crucial role in improving insulin resistance and protecting against the risks from a high-fat, high-sugar diet, according to research presented at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2019. The study, which was based on the fasting practices of Ramadan, a spiritual practice for Muslims, offers a potential new treatment approach for obesity-related conditions, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    "According to World Health Organization data, obesity affects over 650 million people worldwide, placing them at risk for any number of health conditions," said Ayse Leyla Mindikoglu, MD, MPH, lead author of the study and associate professor of medicine and surgery at Baylor College of Medicine, Texas. "Feeding and fasting can significantly impact how the body makes and uses proteins that are critical to decreasing insulin resistance and maintaining a healthy body weight. Therefore, the timing of and duration between meals could be important factors to consider for people struggling with obesity-related conditions."

    The pilot study included 14 healthy individuals who fasted (no food or drink) approximately 15 hours a day from dawn to sunset for 30 days during Ramadan. Researchers collected blood samples from the individuals before beginning the religious fast, again at the fourth week of fasting, and then one-week post-fasting. Resulting blood samples showed increased levels of tropomyosin (TPM) 1, 3 and 4, proteins that have a role in maintaining healthy cells and cell repairs important to the body's response to insulin.

    TPM3 plays a key role in increasing insulin sensitivity, which allows the cells of the body to use blood glucose more effectively, reducing blood sugar. Findings from the study showed a significant increase in TPM3 gene protein products between the initiation of the fast and the test one week afterwards. Similar results over that period were found for TPM1 and TPM4 gene protein products.

    "We are in the process of expanding our research to include individuals with metabolic syndrome and NAFLD to determine whether results are consistent with those of the healthy individuals," said Dr. Mindikoglu. "Based on our initial research, we believe that dawn-to-sunset fasting may provide a cost-effective intervention for those struggling with obesity-related conditions."
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...y-related.html

    katolickie świnie ....

    The Circadian Syndrome: is the metabolic syndrome and much more!



    The Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of cardio‐metabolic risk factors and comorbidities conveying high risk of both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. It is responsible for huge socio‐economic costs with its resulting morbidity and mortality in most countries. The underlying aetiology of this clustering has been the subject of much debate. More recently, significant interest has focussed on the involvement of the circadian system, a major regulator of almost every aspect of human health and metabolism. The circadian syndrome has now been implicated in several chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is now increasing evidence connecting disturbances in circadian rhythm with not only the key components of the Metabolic Syndrome but also its main co‐morbidities including sleep disturbances, depression, steatohepatitis and cognitive dysfunction. Based on this, we now propose that circadian disruption may be an important underlying aetiological factor for the Metabolic Syndrome and we suggest that it be renamed the “Circadian Syndrome”. With the increased recognition of the “Circadian Syndrome”, circadian medicine, through the timing of exercise, light exposure, food consumption, dispensing of medications and sleep, is likely to play a much greater role in the maintenance of both individual and population health in the future.
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...111/joim.12924

    A FOOD PYRAMID FOR KIDS' MEDIA CONSUMPTION
    https://www.wired.com/story/kids-screen-time-pyramid/

    no dobra wracamy do nudy:

    Exercise: Psych patients' new primary prescription

    When it comes to inpatient treatment of a range of mental health and mood disorders—from anxiety and depression to schizophrenia, suicidality and acute psychotic episodes—a new study advocates for exercise, rather than psychotropic medications, as the primary prescription and method of intervention. Findings from the study reveal that physical exercise is so effective at alleviating patient symptoms that it could reduce patients' time admitted to acute facilities and reliance on psychotropic medications.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...scription.html

    Why lack of sleep is bad for your heart

    In recent years, numerous studies have shown that people who don't get enough sleep are at greater risk of stroke and heart attack.
    A new University of Colorado Boulder study, published in the journal Experimental Physiology, helps explain why.
    It found that people who sleep fewer than 7 hours per night have lower blood levels of three physiological regulators, or microRNAs, which influence gene expression and play a key role in maintaining vascular health.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...bad-heart.html

    Earlier bedtimes help kids fight obesity

    (HealthDay)—With childhood obesity rates high, many studies have investigated lifestyle factors that can make a difference—which ones increase the risk and which ones reduce it.
    Beyond diet, a lack of sleep has been linked to weight gain both in adults and children, so it's important that kids get enough shuteye, even with their—and your—busy schedules.
    Since a child's wake-up time is usually determined by when school or day care starts and can't be easily altered, an earlier bedtime is needed to ensure kids get the sleep they need, according to research published in The Journal of Pediatrics.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...s-obesity.html

    Exercise may help teens sleep longer, more efficiently

    Getting more exercise than normal—or being more sedentary than usual—for one day may be enough to affect sleep later that night, according to a new study led by Penn State.

    In a one-week micro-longitudinal study, the researchers found that when teenagers got more physical activity than they usually did, they got to sleep earlier, slept longer and slept better that night.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ficiently.html

    a na koniec - pavo coś ze specjalna dedykacją !

    Phytonutrients: Paint your plate with the colors of the rainbow



    Did you know that adding color to your meals will help you live a longer, healthier life? Colorful fruits and vegetables can paint a beautiful picture of health because they contain phytonutrients, compounds that give plants their rich colors as well as their distinctive tastes and aromas. Phytonutrients also strengthen a plant’s immune system. They protect the plant from threats in their natural environment such as disease and excessive sun.
    https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/...ampaign=buffer

    Cytat Zamieszczone przez semozo Zobacz posta
    I jeszcze po zagramanicznemu..
    od bidy:
    https://translate.google.pl/

    wrzucam przecież w PL jak wyjdzie coś ciekawego, ale większość niusów omija nasz wspaniały język
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; Wczoraj o 10:40
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  8. #758
    Ja tak tylko. Coś tam paniumaju.

  9. #759
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    Dołączył
    May 2014
    Postów
    1 503




    Vitamin D deficiency tied to gestational diabetes risk

    (HealthDay)—Maternal vitamin D deficiency, as early as the first trimester of pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), according to a study recently published in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.

    Jin Xia, from the Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health at Indiana University in Indianapolis, and colleagues used data from the Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort to prospectively investigate the relationship between vitamin D status during early to midpregnancy and GDM risk. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 and vitamin D binding protein were measured at gestational weeks 10 to 14, 15 to 26, 23 to 31, and 33 to 39 in 107 women with GDM and 214 controls.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...stational.html

    tak przy okazji warto wiedzieć:

    Fotony docierające do płodu wpływają na rozwój siatkówki

    Światło podczas życia płodowego jest niezbędne do prawidłowego rozwoju oka, a konkretnie siatkówki.

    Odkryliśmy światłowrażliwy szlak, który kontroluje liczbę neuronów siatkówki i rozwój unaczynienia oka, a należy pamiętać, że wiele poważnych chorób oka to właśnie choroby naczyniowe - podkreśla dr Richard Lang z Centrum Medycznego Cincinnati Children's Hospital.

    Kilka etapów rozwoju mysich oczu zachodzi po urodzeniu, dlatego zawsze zakładaliśmy, że jeśli światło odgrywa jakąś rolę w kształtowaniu oka tych gryzoni, dzieje się to już po opuszczeniu przez młode łona matki - ujawnia dr David Copenhagen z Uniwersytetu Kalifornijskiego w San Francisco. W ramach nowego studium Amerykanie zauważyli jednak, że aby powstało zdrowe oko, do aktywacji światłowrażliwego szlaku powinno dojść jeszcze w czasie ciąży. Do ok. 16. jej dnia barierę matczynego ciała musi pokonać wystarczająca liczba fotonów.

    Zespół zauważył, że fotony aktywują u płodów melanopsynę, pomagając w ten sposób zainicjować normalny rozwój unaczynienia i neuronów siatkówkowych.

    Jedną z funkcji światłowrażliwego szlaku jest kontrola liczby naczyń krwionośnych. W tym samym czasie musi dojść do regresji płodowej waskulatury (oczyszczenia szlaku wzrokowego) i uformowania unaczynienia siatkówkowego (neurony siatkówki mają duże potrzeby metaboliczne). O tym, jak ważna jest precyzyjna kontrola tego procesu, świadczy retinopatia wcześniaków, czyli uszkodzenie siatkówki wywołane rozplemem naczyń.

    Zespół Langa i Copenhagena przeprowadził na myszach szereg eksperymentów. Gryzonie wychowywano w kompletnych ciemnościach lub w warunkach normalnego następowania po sobie dnia i nocy. Oba scenariusze wdrożono pod koniec ciąży. W ten sposób można było sprawdzić, jak rozwijają się naczynia. Funkcję światłowrażliwego szlaku weryfikowano, wywołując mutację genu Opn4, który odpowiada za produkcję melanopsyny.

    Zarówno u myszy rosnących w ciemności, jak i u osobników ze zmutowanym Opn4 występował napędzany czynnikiem wzrostu śródbłonka naczyniowego (ang. vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF) rozplem naczyń. Ósmego dnia po urodzeniu utrzymywała się jeszcze waskulatura płodowa. W zwykłych warunkach światłowrażliwy szlak "przyciąłby" liczbę neuronów siatkówki i ograniczyłby niedotlenienie, wpływając w konsekwencji na miejscową ekspresję VEGF.
    +

    Modelowa siatkówka z in vitro

    Biolodzy z Uniwersytetu Johnsa Hopkinsa w Baltimore stworzyli od zera ludzką siatkówkę, aby określić, w jaki sposób powstają komórki pozwalające widzieć świat w wielu barwach.

    Wyniki prac, opublikowane w czasopiśmie „Science", stanowią podstawę do opracowania terapii chorób oczu, takich jak daltonizm i zwyrodnienie plamki żółtej.

    ORGAN Z PROBÓWKI
    Fascynujący jest fakt, że polem badania rozwoju człowieka na poziomie komórkowym były stworzone przez laboratorium organoidy. Są one zminiaturyzowaną i uproszczoną, ale trójwymiarową wersją ludzkiego narządu. Produkowane in vitro, pochodzą z jednej lub kilku komórek danej tkanki, zarodkowych lub indukowanych pluripotencjalnych (przeważnie pobranych z ciała osoby dorosłej) komórek macierzystych. Są zdolne do odtworzenia specyficznych funkcji narządu, takich jak skurcz, aktywność nerwowa, wydzielanie hormonalne, filtracja i wydalanie.

    Komórki organoidów są pogrupowane i rozmieszczone przestrzennie, podobnie jak w naturalnym organie. Powstały jako narzędzie do badania podstawowych procesów biologicznych, takich jak komunikacja w obrębie organów, ich interakcje z otoczeniem.

    Kultura in vitro czyni ten system łatwym do manipulowania i ułatwia jego monitorowanie. Pełne narządy byłyby trudne do wyhodowania, ponieważ ich wielkość ogranicza przenikanie do wewnątrz składników odżywczych. Niewielki rozmiar organoidów eliminuje ten problem. Z drugiej strony nie wykazują one wszystkich cech narządowych, a przecież interakcje z innymi organami nie są możliwe do odtworzenia in vitro.

    Organoidy w znacznym stopniu przyczyniły się do poszerzenia naszego zrozumienia tworzenia się tkanek i biologii rozwojowej, na przykład ośrodkowego układu nerwowego, do zrozumienia sił fizycznych, które leżą u podstaw powstawania siatkówki. Są również wykorzystywane do badania przepływu substancji – pobierania składników odżywczych, transportu leków i wydzielania hormonów metabolicznych. Ma to wielkie znaczenie w kontekście chorób związanych ze złym wchłanianiem i schorzeń takich jak otyłość, insulinooporność i cukrzyca.

    – To, co badamy, wygląda jak normalnie rozwijające się oko, rosnące w naczyniu – mówi prof. Robert Johnston, biolog rozwojowy w Johns Hopkins. – Mamy model, którym możemy manipulować bez bezpośredniej ingerencji w ludzki organizm.

    Laboratorium Johnstona bada, w jaki sposób tworzy się tkanka, co dzieje się w łonie matki, gdy rozwijająca się komórka przekształca się w specyficzny organ. To aspekt ludzkiej biologii, który jest w dużej mierze nieznany.

    ŚWIAT W TRZECH BARWACH
    Johnston i jego zespół skupili się na komórkach, które pozwalają ludziom zobaczyć kolor niebieski, czerwony i zielony – są to trzy fotoreceptory w kształcie stożka znajdujące się w ludzkim oku.

    Większość badań nad wzrokiem wykonuje się na myszach i rybach, ale żaden z tych gatunków nie ma umiejętności widzenia w kolorze tak, jak człowiek. Stąd tak ważne było zastosowanie ludzkich komórek macierzystych.

    Gdy rosły one w laboratorium i stały się pełnowymiarowymi siatkówkami, zespół odkrył, że komórki wykrywające barwę niebieską zmaterializowały się jako pierwsze, dopiero później przyszedł czas na rozpoznające kolor czerwony i zielony. W obu przypadkach okazało się, że kluczem do zmiany molekularnej był hormon tarczycy. Co ważne, jego poziom był kontrolowany w całości przez samo oko, a nie przez tarczycę, której oczywiście nie było w naczyniu.

    Dzięki zrozumieniu, w jaki sposób pewna ilość hormonu tarczycy wpływa na ten rodzaj komórek, zespół był w stanie manipulować wynikiem, tworząc siatkówki, które gdyby były częścią kompletnego ludzkiego oka, zobaczyłyby tylko kolor niebieski, i takie, które mogłyby ujrzeć wyłącznie zieloną i czerwoną barwę.

    Odkrycie roli hormonu tarczycy w procesie rozwoju siatkówki daje wgląd w to, dlaczego u wcześniaków częściej występują zaburzenia widzenia, ponieważ po odłączeniu się od matczynych zapasów spada u nich poziom hormonów tarczycy. – Jeśli potrafimy odpowiedzieć na pytanie, co prowadzi komórkę do jej formy docelowej, jesteśmy bliżej możliwości przywrócenia widzenia kolorów osobom, których receptory zostały uszkodzone – powiedziała autorka badania Kiara Eldred.

    Naukowcy chcą w przyszłości używać organoidów do szerszych badań na temat postrzegania kolorów, a także żółtej plamki, której zwyrodnienie jest jedną z głównych przyczyn ślepoty u ludzi.
    a jakby kogoś zaintrygowało to zapraszam:

    The circadian clock gene Bmal1 controls thyroid hormone-mediated spectral identity and cone photoreceptor function


    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5647869/

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation limits diet-induced weight gain, increases liver triglycerides and prevents the early signs of cardiovascular disease in mice.

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sunlight exposure is associated with a number of health benefits including protecting us from autoimmunity, cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Animal studies have confirmed that ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation, independently of vitamin D, can limit diet-induced obesity, metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether exposure to the UV radiation contained in sunlight impacts on these disease parameters.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We have trialled an intervention with solar UV in obese and atherosclerosis-prone mice. We have discovered that solar-simulated UV can significantly limit diet-induced obesity and reduce atheroma development in mice fed a diet high in sugar and fat. The optimal regime for this benefit was exposure once a week to solar UV equivalent to approximately 30 min of summer sun. Exposure to this optimal dose of solar UV also led to a significant increase in liver triglycerides which may protect the liver from damage.

    CONCLUSION: Our results show that the UV contained in sunlight has the potential to prevent and treat chronic disease at sites distant from irradiated skin. A major health challenge going forward will be to harness the power of the sun safely, without risking an increase in skin cancers.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/30956026/

    MAY 22, 2019
    Contact with nature during childhood could lead to better mental health in adulthood



    Adults who had close contact with natural spaces during their childhood could have a better mental health than those who had less contact, according to a new study by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) involving four European cities.
    Exposure to natural outdoor environments has been associated with several health benefits, including a better cognitive development and better mental and physical health. However, few studies have explored the impact of childhood exposure to natural environments on mental health and vitality in adulthood. Furthermore, studies have more frequently considered green spaces (gardens, forests, urban parks) than blue spaces (canals, ponds, creeks, rivers, lakes, beaches, etc.).
    This study, published in the International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, was performed within the framework of the PHENOTYPE project with data from almost 3,600 adults from Barcelona (Spain), Doetinchem (Netherlands), Kaunas (Lithuania) and Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom).
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/30956026/

    wczesne igranie z neuronami dopaminergicznymi kończy się
    predisposes brain to addiction later
    Early life exposure to nicotine alters neurons, predisposes brain to addiction later

    Neonatal exposure to nicotine alters the reward circuity in the brains of newborn mice, increasing their preference for the drug in later adulthood, report researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine in a study published "in press" April 24, 2019 in Biological Psychiatry.
    a co z telefonami ?

    WFT !

    Hypertension found in children exposed to flower pesticides

    Neonatal exposure to nicotine alters the reward circuity in the brains of newborn mice, increasing their preference for the drug in later adulthood, report researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine in a study published "in press" April 24, 2019 in Biological Psychiatry.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...esticides.html

    Leaving school earlier could increase the risk of heart disease

    Although it has been known for a long time, that education, and socioeconomic position affect health, particularly in later life, there was limited knowledge as to why. New research has found that increased levels of BMI, blood pressure and smoking partly explain why people who left school at an earlier age could be at an increased risk of heart disease.

    The study led by the University of Bristol and Imperial College London, and published in the BMJ today, investigated the role of body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and smoking in European populations to explain the effect of education on the risk of cardiovascular disease, which affects the heart or blood vessels and includes heart disease, heart attack and stroke.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...t-disease.html


    Researchers identify genetic switch that controls conversion of bad to good fat



    Fat cells. They are the bane of a dieter's existence, but fat is important. Previous studies showed the subcutaneous white fat cells can transform to brown and beige varieties when exposed to cold stress. These dusky forms of fat, burn energy more effectively to keep an organism warm. Researchers at University of Utah Health have figured out a way to make more of these energy-burning fat cells. They have identified TLE3, a genetic switch that stops the conversion of white fat into these thermogenic varieties. The results are available online in the May 23 issue of the journal Genes and Development.

    "Our story highlights that there are different types of fat cells, and TLE3 is one way to address how fat cells are programmed," said Claudio Villanueva, Ph.D., assistant professor in biochemistry at U of U Health and senior author on the paper. "If we could find therapeutic ways to inhibit TLE3, we may be able to develop interventions for type II diabetes. Therapies that help lower blood glucose levels are gravely needed."

    Fat cells come in three varieties. White fat, the most common variety, is stored fat associated with metabolic disorders, like diabetes and obesity. Brown and beige fat contain more mitochondria, the energy centers of the cell, allowing these varieties to burn fuel more efficiently. Brown fat is activated in cold conditions and burned to create heat. Beige fat is found in bundles nestled within white fat, but little is known about it.

    Previous research found that white fat tissue that overexpresses early B-cell factor 2 (EFB2) recruits more beige fat cells, but this protein-coding gene is triggered by many factors. Villanueva and his team focused on transducing-like enhancer 3 (TLE3), a protein situated in the same region as EFB2. They found that TLE3 acts like a switch, stopping EFB2 from converting white to beige fat and preventing energy expenditure and glucose use.

    The team deleted TLE3 in mice and placed the animals in cold conditions for several days. According to Villanueva, they tried to recreate a situation where an animal would be trying to develop beige fat cells to understand impact of the loss of TLE3. In the absence of this gene, the knock-out mice recruited more beige fat cells. The team examined the impact of the abundance of beige fat on animal metabolism.

    "The knock-out mice experienced enhanced energy expenditure under normal conditions and weight loss during cold conditions," said Stephanie Pearson, Ph.D., a researcher working in Villanueva's lab and first author on the paper. "Even without cold stimulation, the knock-out mice did not gain as much weight."

    Villanueva believes these results could be used to create interventions for metabolic disorders.

    "Long-term we want to identify or develop drugs that will target TLE3 that can be used as an intervention for patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity," he said.

    Therapeutic Potential of Exogenous Ketone Supplement Induced Ketosis in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders: Review of Current Literature

    Globally, psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are becoming more prevalent. Although the exact pathological alterations are not yet clear, recent studies have demonstrated that widespread changes of very complex metabolic pathways may partially underlie the pathophysiology of many psychiatric diseases. Thus, more attention should be directed to metabolic-based therapeutic interventions in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Emerging evidence from numerous studies suggests that administration of exogenous ketone supplements, such as ketone salts or ketone esters, generates rapid and sustained nutritional ketosis and metabolic changes, which may evoke potential therapeutic effects in cases of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including psychiatric diseases. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current information on ketone supplementation as a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders. Ketone supplementation elevates blood levels of the ketone bodies: D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), acetoacetate (AcAc), and acetone. These compounds, either directly or indirectly, beneficially affect the mitochondria, glycolysis, neurotransmitter levels, activity of free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3), hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCAR2), and histone deacetylase, as well as functioning of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) expression. The result of downstream cellular and molecular changes is a reduction in the pathophysiology associated with various psychiatric disorders. We conclude that supplement-induced nutritional ketosis leads to metabolic changes and improvements, for example, in mitochondrial function and inflammatory processes, and suggest that development of specific adjunctive ketogenic protocols for psychiatric diseases should be actively pursued.

    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...019.00363/full

    i na koniec ciekawostka:

    Ethnic Differences in Nighttime Melatonin and Nighttime Blood Pressure: A Study in European Americans and African Americans.

    BACKGROUND:
    Ethnic differences in nighttime blood pressure (BP) have long been documented with African Americans (AAs) having higher BP than European Americans (EAs). Recently, lower nighttime melatonin, a key regulator of circadian rhythms, has been associated with higher nighttime BP levels in EAs. This study sought to test the hypothesis that AAs have lower nighttime melatonin secretion compared with EAs. We also determined if this ethnic difference in melatonin could partially explain the ethnic difference in nighttime BP.

    METHODS:
    A total of 150 young adults (71 AA; 46% females; mean age: 27.7 years old) enrolled in the Georgia Stress and Heart study provided an overnight urine sample for the measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, a major metabolite of melatonin. Urine melatonin excretion (UME) was calculated as the ratio between 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentration and creatinine concentration. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP was assessed and nighttime systolic BP (SBP) was used as a major index of BP regulation.

    RESULTS:
    After adjustment of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking, AAs had significantly lower UME (P=0.002) and higher nighttime SBP than EAs (P=0.036). Lower UME was significantly associated with higher nighttime SBP and this relationship did not depend on ethnicity. The ethnicity difference in nighttime SBP was significantly attenuated after adding UME into the model (P =0.163).

    CONCLUSION:
    The present study is the first to document the ethnic difference in nighttime melatonin excretion, demonstrating that AAs have lower melatonin secretion compared with EAs. Furthermore, the ethnic difference in nighttime melatonin can partially account for the established ethnic difference in nighttime SBP.
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; Dzisiaj o 12:18
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  10. #760


    Czyli jednak i tabletkowa D3 działa? Nie trzeba chodzić pod promiennik dla kurczaków?

    Fotony docierające do płodu wpływają na rozwój siatkówki
    "fotony" te z wifi albo 4g mogą być? Czy te z rentgena lepiej?

  11. #761
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    Czyli jednak i tabletkowa D3 działa? Nie trzeba chodzić pod promiennik dla kurczaków?
    no nawet taka, takie badania to piszę a co dopiero:



    strach się bać normalnie.

    "fotony" te z wifi albo 4g mogą być? Czy te z rentgena lepiej?
    pytasz się o bezpieczeństwo płodu pod wpływem fal niejonizujących co nie wypierdalają elektronu?

    taka ciekawosta na temat rengena:

    Zdjęcia rentgenowskie wymyślił Wilhelm Röntgen. Powstały one na początku XX wieku i jest to odrobinę krwawa historia.
    - Na początku wieku Röntgen, badając wyładowania jarzeniowe w gazach, zauważył, że wytworzył również promienie, które rozchodzą się prostoliniowo i przenikają praktycznie przez całą materię, ale w różnym stopniu - mówi profesor Aleksy Bartnik z Wydziału Fizyki Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego. - Promienie te łatwo przenikają przez lekkie pierwiastki, jak wodór, tlen czy węgiel, natomiast trudniej przez ciężkie, jak złoto czy wapień.
    Pierwszym zdjęciem rentgenowskim było prześwietlenie ręki żony Röntgen, na którym widać kości, kawałek ciała i obrączkę.

    Odkrycie Wilhelma Röntgena zmieniło wszystko. Teraz wszyscy chcieli być lekarzami tzw. nowego typu, czyli używającymi prześwietleń, a nie stetoskopów.
    Nawet sklepy z obuwiem dla dzieci wyposażone były w aparaty do prześwietleń. Rodzic, wkładając nóżkę dziecka do bucika, mógł zrobić zdjęcie rentgenowskie i wiedział czy dana para butów nie jest za mała lub za duża.
    Niestety bardzo szybko się okazało, że promienie rentgena niszczą DNA w komórkach, czego efektem mogą być nowotwory lub choroba popromienna. Na szczęście dziś wszystko wygląda trochę inaczej i zdjecie rentgenowskie, które robimy nie częściej niż raz w roku, w ogóle nie zagraża naszemu zdrowiu.
    https://www.polskieradio.pl/10/484/A...n-bez-tajemnic
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; Dzisiaj o 13:02
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  12. #762
    pytasz się o bezpieczeństwo płodu pod wpływem fal niejonizujących co nie wypierdalają elektronu?
    Pytam bo napisanie czegoś w stylu "muszą dotrzeć fotony do siatkówki płodu" nie mówi mi nic o tym jakich energii/długości fali mają być te fotony. To mają być fotony z zakresu fal długich? Czy może fal gamma? Nie wiadomo.

  13. #763
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    nie mówi mi nic o tym jakich energii/długości fali mają być te fotony. To mają być fotony z zakresu fal długich? Czy może fal gamma? Nie wiadomo.
    Zespół zauważył, że fotony aktywują u płodów melanopsynę, pomagając w ten sposób zainicjować normalny rozwój unaczynienia i neuronów siatkówkowych.
    chodzi o melanopsynę, więc 470nm.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746810/
    correlation doesn't imply causation

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