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Wątek: NATURALNE sposoby optymalizacji CIAŁA i DUSZY.

  1. #796
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 549
    Probiotics and prebiotics in intestinal health and disease: from biology to the clinic

    Key points
    - The human gut microbiota is integral to health and is associated with a variety of diseases.

    - Therapeutic and prophylactic effects of some probiotics and prebiotics for a variety of gut-related disorders might be, at least in part, mediated through modification of the microbiota and/or its function.

    - Probiotic microorganisms act via a variety of means, including modulation of immune function, production of organic acids and antimicrobial compounds, interaction with resident microbiota, interfacing with the host, improving gut barrier integrity and enzyme formation.

    -Prebiotics are substrates that are selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit; prebiotic effects include defence against pathogens, immune modulation, mineral absorption, bowel function, metabolic effects and satiety.

    -Use of some probiotics and prebiotics is justified by robust assessments of efficacy, but not all products have been validated; the goal is evidence-based use by healthcare professionals.
    Sleeping with lights on increases the risk of prostate cancer

    Men who sleep in a dark bedroom are less likely to have prostate cancer than men who sleep with the lights on. Spanish researchers at the Barcelona Institute for Global Health report this in Environmental Health Perspectives.

    Healthy lifestyle may offset genetic risk of dementia

    Living a healthy lifestyle may help offset a person's genetic risk of dementia, according to new research.

    The study was led by the University of Exeter—simultaneously published today in JAMA and presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference 2019 in Los Angeles. The research found that the risk of dementia was 32 per cent lower in people with a high genetic risk if they had followed a healthy lifestyle, compared to those who had an unhealthy lifestyle.


    Effects of testosterone on circadian rhythmicity in old mice.

    Serum testosterone concentration decreases with age in humans and rodents. Accordingly, old male mice show changes in locomotor activity rhythms: a lengthened free-running period and decreased activity levels among others. To investigate whether testosterone replacement improves the age-related decline in circadian rhythmicity, we examined the effects of testosterone on the circadian rhythms of wheel running activity in old male mice. Intact male C57BL/6J mice (18-22 months old) were subcutaneously implanted with silicone tubes packed with testosterone propionate (TP) or cholesterol. TP treatment significantly decreased the daily wheel running revolutions in a normal light/dark (LD) cycle and in constant darkness (DD), but did not affect the free-running period. The same experiment performed on young male gonadectomized mice (3-5 months old) demonstrated that TP treatment significantly increased activity levels in both LD and DD. These results suggest that testosterone replacement exacerbates the age-related decline in circadian rhythmicity.
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 15-07-19 o 15:34
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  2. #797
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 549

    15 July 2019
    Symposium overview: fructose in physiology

    In summary, this collection of review articles illuminates several key aspects of fructose metabolism. It is clear that excessive fructose intakes in sedentary individuals can induce a number of metabolic effects that may be detrimental to health. Whether males or females are more sensitive to the effects of fructose intake remains to be established. The hormone FGF21 could hold promise in reducing the levels of fructose intake when a high‐fructose intake is undesirable and could therefore contribute to improvements in metabolic health. The metabolic effects of fructose ingestion can be utilised to benefit endurance performance and recovery in athletes, and these athletes seem to be protected against the negative metabolic effects of high‐fructose intake. The mechanisms underlying exercise‐induced protection against these metabolic effects remains to be established, but may involve increased conversion of fructose into glucose and lactate for oxidation rather than conversion into lipid, and these processes could be regulated by hepatic glycogen content. These physiological mechanisms provide a better understanding of why specific populations seem to be more or less vulnerable to high‐fructose intakes and can be targeted towards improving metabolic health.
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  3. #798
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 549
    i po raz setny ...

    JULY 15, 2019
    Increases in social media use and television viewing associated with increases in teen depression

    Screen time and depression

    Dr. Conrod's team followed almost 4,000 Canadian teenagers from ages 12 to 16 years who were part of the Co-Venture Trial. Each year of high school, teens were asked to self-report time spent in front of digital screens and specify the amount of time spent engaging in four different types of screen activities (social media, television, video gaming and computer use).

    Moreover, the teenagers completed self-reported questionnaires on various depressive symptoms between ages 12 and 16. Then, after data collection, state-of-the-art statistical analyses were performed to assess the between-person and with-person associations between screen time and depression in adolescence. These analyses augment standard analyses by modelling the year-to-year changes of both sets of problems, thus taking into account possible common vulnerability and possible natural developmental changes in each set of behaviours or symptoms.

    "Our research reveals that increased time spent using some forms of digital media in a given year predicts depressive symptoms within that same year," said Conrod. This is highly encouraging from a prevention perspective, she added. "Early identification of vulnerability to depression gives clinicians and parents a large window of time in which to intervene. Regulating teens' social media and television use might be one way to help young people manage depressed mood or vulnerability to depressive symptoms."

    Conrod and her colleagues hope that this study will help guide the design of new intervention strategies for at-risk youth, before the symptoms become clinically significant.
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  4. #799
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 549
    stres oksydacyjny, który generuje nadmiar pokarmu (nie wnikając w leptynę i inne) powoduje odpalenie konkretnego białka (RAGE), w celu zahamowania spalania "kalorii".
    Naukowcy chcą farmakologicznie wyłączyć hamulec. Można dużo prościej - zacząć regularnie wchodzić do zimnego zbiornika.

    Researchers ID mechanism that may drive obesity epidemic

    A molecular "trick" that kept our ancient ancestors from starving may now be contributing to the obesity epidemic, a new study finds.

    In starvation times, researchers say, animals were more likely to survive if they could hoard and stretch out their stored energy. Even if an animal secured a rare feast, evolution smiled on the storage of excess fuel as fat, given the likelihood of a quick return to starvation.

    "We discovered an anti-starvation mechanism that has become a curse in times of plenty because it sees cellular stress created by overeating as similar to stress created by starvation—and puts the brakes on our ability to burn fat," says lead study author Ann Marie Schmidt, MD, the Dr. Iven Young Professor of Endocrinology at NYU School of Medicine.

    Published online July 16 in Cell Reports, the current study reveals that the natural function of a protein called RAGE on the surface of fat cells is to stop the breakdown of stored fat in the face of stress. Its existence may partly explain why 70 percent of American adults are overweight or obese, according to the American Heart Association (AHA). In March 2017, the AHA announced a grant to help researchers find the elusive "metabolic brake."

    The AHA funding followed a 2016 study that found contestants from America's Greatest Loser gained back their lost pounds after the show ended. Why did their metabolisms slam to a halt in the face of weight loss, as if their bodies were bent on returning to obesity?

    A Brake on Fat Burning

    According to the authors, the most efficient way for evolution to create an anti-starvation mechanism was from ancient systems that helped animals use food for cellular energy and recover from injury. Also wired into these primal mechanisms was the hormone adrenalin, which signals for the conversion of fat into energy as animals run from predators, or into body heat when they get cold.

    This convergence—through the same signaling proteins—means that RAGE may block "fat burning" called for when we starve, freeze, get injured, panic, or ironically, overeat.

    According to the new study and experiments done elsewhere in human tissues, RAGE is turned on by the advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which form when blood sugar combines with proteins or fats—most often in aging, diabetic and obese patients. Other molecules also activate RAGE, such as those released when cells die and spill their contents into intracellular spaces in response to stress.

    A disturbing possibility, says Schmidt, is that many proteins and fats have come to activate "the RAGE break" as they warp and stack up (as toxic oligomers) in people that eat more than their ancestors did.

    The current study found that removing RAGE from fat cells caused mice to gain up to 75 percent less weight during three months of high-fat feeding, despite equal amounts of food consumption and physical activity, than mice with the RAGE brake on. Transplanting fatty tissue lacking RAGE into normal mice also decreased weight gain as they were fed a high-fat diet.

    In both sets of experiments, the deletion of RAGE from fat cells released the braking mechanisms that restrained energy expenditure. Once freed up, energy expenditure rose, contributing to the reduced body weight gain in mice with the fatty diet.

    The new study complements the team's discovery of experimental compounds that attach to the "tail" of RAGE. From there, they prevent RAGE from turning down the action of protein kinase A, a key player in the chain reaction that ends with a protein called UCP1 turning fat into body heat.

    The research team plans—once they optimize the design of these "RAGE inhibitors"—to examine whether the agents can keep bariatric surgery patients, and patients undergoing medical weight loss regimens, from regaining lost weight.

    Importantly, RAGE is much more active during metabolic stress (e.g. starving or overeating) than in everyday function, which suggests it can be safely interfered with through drugs, the authors say.

    "Because RAGE evolved out of the immune system, blocking it may also reduce the inflammatory signals that contribute to insulin resistance driving diabetes," says Schmidt. "Further, such treatments may lessen the system-wide inflammation linked to risk for atherosclerosis, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease."

    Scientists find a way to reduce sugar in drinks

    Research has shown that increasing the pH level of water could help tackle obesity and health problems caused by high sugar content in drinks.

    Scientists at De Montfort University Leicester (DMU) have been working with University of Sheffield, Innovate UK and WET Group Ltd to find a way to create drinks that do not need sugar or additives.

    Melatonin: Countering Chaotic Time Cues

    Last year melatonin was 60 years old, or at least its discovery was 60 years ago. The molecule itself may well be almost as old as life itself. So it is time to take yet another perspective on our understanding of its functions, effects and clinical uses. This is not a formal review—there is already a multitude of systematic reviews, narrative reviews, meta-analyses and even reviews of reviews. In view of the extraordinary variety of effects attributed to melatonin in the last 25 years, it is more of an attempt to sort out some areas where a consensus opinion exists, and where placebo controlled, randomized, clinical trials have confirmed early observations on therapeutic uses. The current upsurge of concern about the multiple health problems associated with disturbed circadian rhythms has generated interest in related therapeutic interventions, of which melatonin is one. The present text will consider the physiological role of endogenous melatonin, and the mostly pharmacological effects of exogenous treatment, on the assumption that normal circulating concentrations represent endogenous pineal production. It will concentrate mainly on the most researched, and accepted area of therapeutic use and potential use of melatonin—its undoubted ability to realign circadian rhythms and sleep—since this is the author's bias. It will touch briefly upon some other systems with prominent rhythmic attributes including certain cancers, the cardiovascular system, the entero-insular axis and metabolism together with the use of melatonin to assess circadian status. Many of the ills of the developed world relate to deranged rhythms—and everything is rhythmic unless proved otherwise.

    Exercise training volume is more important than training intensity to promote increases in mitochondrial content

    Chronotype and Social Jetlag: A (Self-) Critical Review
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; Dzisiaj o 17:55
    correlation doesn't imply causation

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