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Wątek: NATURALNE sposoby optymalizacji CIAŁA i DUSZY.

  1. #811
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    tak tak, nawet mleko matki ma swoją rytmiczność:

    Human milk as “chrononutrition”: implications for child health and development

    Abstract
    Human biology follows recurring daily rhythms that are governed by circadian cues in the environment. Here we show that human milk is a powerful form of “chrononutrition,” formulated to communicate time-of-day information to infants. However, 85% of breastfed infants in the US consume some milk that does not come directly from the breast but is pumped and stored in advance of feeding. Expressed milk is not necessarily circadian-matched (e.g., an infant might drink breastmilk pumped in the evening on the following morning). Ingesting mistimed milk may disrupt infants’ developing circadian rhythms, potentially contributing to sleep problems and decreased physiological attunement with their mothers and environments. Dysregulated circadian biology may compromise infant health and development. Despite wide-ranging public health implications, the timing of milk delivery has received little empirical study, and no major pediatric or public health organization has issued recommendations regarding the circadian-matching of milk. However, potential adverse developmental and health consequences could be ameliorated by simple, low-cost interventions to label and circadian-match stored milk. The current paper reviews evidence for human milk as chrononutrition and makes recommendations for future research, practice, and policy.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41390-019-0368-x

    Too much coffee raises the odds of triggering a migraine headache

    Drinking three or more servings of caffeinated beverages a day is associated with the onset of a headache on that or the following day in patients with episodic migraine, according to a new study in The American Journal of Medicine, published by Elsevier. Results are consistent even after accounting for daily changes in alcohol intake, stress, sleep, physical activity, and menstruation, although there was some variation evident with oral contraception use.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-headache.html


    link do poprzedniego badania:

    Medicine in the Fourth Dimension.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/...?dopt=Abstract
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  2. #812
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    zastosowanie intensywnego światła (PER2) w leczeniu chorób sercowo-naczyniowych.

    yhm, kardio-protekcyjne zastosowanie wschodu słońca.

    AUGUST 06, 2019
    Intense Light-Mediated Circadian Cardioprotection via Transcriptional Reprogramming of the Endothelium



    Summary
    Consistent daylight oscillations and abundant oxygen availability are fundamental to human health. Here, we investigate the intersection between light-sensing (Period 2 [PER2]) and oxygen-sensing (hypoxia-inducible factor [HIF1A]) pathways in cellular adaptation to myocardial ischemia. We demonstrate that intense light is cardioprotective via circadian PER2 amplitude enhancement, mimicking hypoxia-elicited adenosine- and HIF1A-metabolic adaptation to myocardial ischemia under normoxic conditions. Whole-genome array from intense light-exposed wild-type or Per2−/− mice and myocardial ischemia in endothelial-specific PER2-deficient mice uncover a critical role for intense light in maintaining endothelial barrier function via light-enhanced HIF1A transcription. A proteomics screen in human endothelia reveals a dominant role for PER2 in metabolic reprogramming to hypoxia via mitochondrial translocation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme activity regulation, and HIF1A transcriptional adaption to hypoxia. Translational investigation of intense light in human subjects identifies similar PER2 mechanisms, implicating the use of intense light for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
    https://els-jbs-prod-cdn.literatumon...030009/fx1.jpg

    Obese Individuals with and without Type 2 Diabetes Show Different Gut Microbial Functional Capacity and Composition



    Summary
    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic disorders that are linked to microbiome alterations. However, their co-occurrence poses challenges in disentangling microbial features unique to each condition. We analyzed gut microbiomes of lean non-diabetic (n = 633), obese non-diabetic (n = 494), and obese individuals with T2D (n = 153) from German population and metabolic disease cohorts. Microbial taxonomic and functional profiles were analyzed along with medical histories, serum metabolomics, biometrics, and dietary data. Obesity was associated with alterations in microbiome composition, individual taxa, and functions with notable changes in Akkermansia, Faecalibacterium, Oscillibacter, and Alistipes, as well as in serum metabolites that correlated with gut microbial patterns. However, microbiome associations were modest for T2D, with nominal increases in Escherichia/Shigella. Medications, including antihypertensives and antidiabetics, along with dietary supplements including iron, were significantly associated with microbiome variation. These results differentiate microbial components of these interrelated metabolic diseases and identify dietary and medication exposures to consider in future studies.
    https://www.cell.com/cell-host-micro...8#.XUxMrVShoUY


    Blackcurrants boost dopamine, make physical activity more enjoyable

    A glass of blackcurrant juice, taken for long-term moderately intensive exercise, makes that activity less tiring. This is probably because the phenols in blackcurrants increase the dopamine concentration in the brain, researchers at the New Zealand research institute Plant & Food Research [plantandfood.co.nz] discovered.
    http://www.ergo-log.com/blackcurrant...enjoyable.html



    „Wszystko co słyszymy jest opinią, nie faktem. Wszystko co widzimy jest punktem widzenia, nie prawdą”.

    – Marek Aureliusz
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 08-08-19 o 18:49
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  3. #813
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    Klienci pokochali "godziny ciszy" w supermarkecie. Ta sieć wprowadza je we wszystkich sklepach

    Godziny ciszy w Auchan
    - Nasza akcja społeczna „Godziny ciszy" spotkała się z bardzo pozytywnym odbiorem. Do końca sierpnia wszystkie sklepy Auchan wprowadzą u siebie taką możliwość zakupów - poinformowała serwis wiadomoscihandlowe.pl Dorota Patejko, rzecznik prasowy Auchan.

    Zaczęło się od sklepu w Częstochowie. To tam zdecydowano się przygasić światła, wyłączyć muzykę i telewizory oraz otworzyć specjalną kasę dla osób ze spektrum autyzmu. Choć trudno oszacować wpływ akcji „Godziny ciszy” na liczbę klientów, do Auchan docierały komunikaty o dobrym przyjęciu czasu bez jaskrawych świateł, muzyki i komunikatów również wśród klientów bez zaburzeń.

    Z tego powodu inicjatywa zostanie wprowadzona we wszystkich sklepach. O tym, kiedy będą trwały „Godziny ciszy” w poszczególnych sklepach, klienci będą mogli dowiedzieć się z lokalnych mediów społecznościowych lub bezpośrednio w sklepie na plakacie.
    https://innpoland.pl/154053,godziny-...sklepach-kiedy

    AUGUST 9, 2019
    Abundant screen time linked with overweight among children

    A recently completed study indicates that Finnish children who spend a lot of time in front of screens have a heightened risk for overweight and abdominal obesity, regardless of the extent of their physical activity.
    The increase in childhood obesity is one of the largest health problems globally. The study investigated links between screen time and overweight by utilising the Finnish Health in Teens data (Fin-HIT), encompassing more than 10,000 children from across Finland. The children studied were between 9 and 12 years of age.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-children.html

    schizofrenia/parkinson czyli stan, gdzie neurony dopaminergiczne nie pracują prawidłowo.
    Gdzie problem z dopaminą tam problem z zegarem, grzebali grzebali aż wygrzebali.

    siedzisz do 2 w nocy przed monitem ?
    a w dzień szukasz miejsca dla "zdrowej drzemki" i walisz kawę za kawą ?

    AUGUST 9, 2019
    Disrupted genetic clocks in schizophrenia-affected brains reveal clues to the disease

    Rhythms in gene expression in the brain are highly disrupted in people with schizophrenia, according to a new University of Pittsburgh-led study.
    The findings, published today by researchers from the Pitt's School of Medicine in the journal Nature Communications, also suggest that researchers studying schizophrenia-linked genes in the brain could have missed important clues that would help understand the disease.
    "Our study shows for the first time that there are significant disruptions in the daily timing of when some genes are turned on or off, which has implications for how we understand the disease at a molecular level," said senior author Colleen McClung, Ph.D., professor of psychiatry at Pitt's School of Medicine.

    Many bodily functions run on a 24-hour cycle, called a circadian rhythm, which extends to how genes are expressed within cells. Some genes turn on or off at certain times of the day or night.

    In this study, McClung and colleagues analyzed gene expression data from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex—a brain region responsible for cognition and memory—from 46 people with schizophrenia and 46 sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. The data was obtained from the CommonMind Consortium, a public-private partnership that has curated a rich brain tissue and data bank for studying neuropsychiatric disorders.

    By knowing the time of death, the researchers were able to use a statistical method to determine changes in the rhythmicity of different genes, which revealed some interesting patterns.

    McClung explained the findings by drawing an analogy of gene expression to electrical appliances in a house.

    "In a normal house—like a healthy brain—let's say the lights are turned on at night, but the refrigerator needs to be on all the time. What we saw was that in a schizophrenia-affected brain, the lights are on all day and the refrigerator shuts off at night."

    This is problematic, explains McClung, because it can affect how cells function. In their samples, the genes that gained rhythmicity were involved in how mitochondria—the cell's powerhouse—functions, and those that lost rhythmicity were linked to inflammation.

    The results also have implications for other researchers studying the genetics of schizophrenia, according to Marianne Seney, Ph.D., assistant professor of psychiatry at Pitt's School of Medicine and the study's first author. By not considering circadian rhythms, they could be missing out on important findings.

    When Seney and McClung compared gene expression in brains from people who died during the day, the control and schizophrenia subjects were not different, but in those who died at night, there were major differences, since genes that had gained a rhythm had hit their low point during the night.

    Seney alludes to the analogy of the house. "If we only looked to see if the refrigerator was on during the day we would see no difference, but at night, there would be one."
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ed-brains.html

    "obojętna" fala elektromagnetyczna, blokuje rozprzestrzenianie się komórek rakowych.

    AUGUST 8, 2019
    Electromagnetic fields may hinder spread of breast cancer cells

    They found that metastatic triple-negative breast cancer cells—cancer cells that, by their nature, do not respond to hormonal therapy or to treatments that target a gene commonly expressed in breast cancer cells—were the most sensitive to electromagnetic fields.

    And, in their tests, they found that certain drug therapies—and specifically one that targets a pathway for cancer called AKT—could enhance the ability of the electromagnetic fields to block the cancer cells from spreading.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...st-cancer.html

    The Effect of Resistance Exercise on All-Cause Mortality in Cancer Survivors



    Results
    Physical activity in cancer survivors was not associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. In contrast, RE was associated with a 33% lower risk of all-cause mortality (95% CI, 0.45-0.99) after adjusting for potential confounders, including PA.

    Conclusion
    Individuals who participated in RE during cancer survival had a lower risk for all-cause mortality. The present findings provide preliminary evidence for benefits of RE during cancer survival. Future randomized controlled trials examining RE and its effect on lean body mass, muscular strength, and all-cause mortality in cancer survivors are warranted.
    https://www.mayoclinicproceedings.or...2814%2900378-4

    parę słów o wydajności:

    Circadian Rhythms in Attention

    Abstract
    Attention is a cognitive process crucial for human performance. It has four components: tonic alertness, phasic alertness, selective attention, and sustained attention. All the components of attention show homeostatic (time awake, sleep deprivation) and circadian (time of day) variations. The time course of the circadian rhythms in attention is important to program work and school-related activities. The components of attention reach their lowest levels during nighttime and early hours in the morning, better levels occur around noon, and even higher levels can be observed during afternoon and evening hours. However, this time course can be modulated by chronotype, sleep deprivation, age, or drugs. Homeostatic and circadian variations have also been found in other basic cognitive processes (working memory and executive functions), with a time course similar to that observed for attention. Data reviewed in this paper suggests the need to consider circadian rhythms, age, and chronotype of the person, when programming schedules for work, study, school start time, school testing, psychological testing, and neuropsychological assessment.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430172/

    correlation doesn't imply causation

  4. #814
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    jeśli kogoś nie interesują informację o kardioprotekcyjnych właściwościach porannego słońca, to może zainteresuję się w jaki sposób optymalizuje silnik (nie paliwo):

    tutaj jest ładna animacja (zasada działania spłuczki do kibla):




    Endothelial PER2 Transcriptionally Regulates Mitochondrial Respiration and Barrier Function

    Additional analysis of our proteomics screen indicated binding of PER2 to mitochondrial complex 4 (Table S1, cytochrome c), supporting a role for PER2 in controlling mitochondrial function under hypoxia. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR, a measure of mitochondrial functionality), basal respiration, maximal respiration, ATP production, and spare capacity were significantly reduced in PER2KD cells during a mitochondrial stress test (Figures 5A–5D; Figure S7). Moreover, OCR levels were significantly increased in cells with higher PER2 levels at the 24 h time point when compared with 12 h post-cell synchronization (Eckle et al., 2012). These findings highlight a role for oscillatory PER2 overexpression in metabolic adaptation under normoxia (Figure S7).
    Considering that HIF1A mediates a switch of complex 4 subunits (COX4.1 to COX4.2) in hypoxia to enhance oxygen efficiency, which conserves cellular ATP content (Fukuda et al., 2007), we next investigated the transcriptional regulation of COX4.2 in PER2KD cells under hypoxia. Here, we found abolished increases of COX4.2 mRNA or complex 4 activity in hypoxic PER2KD cells or ischemic hearts from Per2−/− mice, respectively (Figures 5E and 5F). Moreover, intense light preconditioning of wild-type mice resulted in significantly increased cardiac COX4.2 mRNA levels at ZT3 in the uninjured heart (Figure 5G).

    To understand whether compromised oxidative phosphorylation in PER2 deficiency would be associated with reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, which is associated with compromised mitochondrial function (Solaini et al., 2010), we next used MitoTracker deep red staining (Zhou et al., 2011). Studies of PER2KD HMEC-1 indicated already reduced mitochondrial potential under normoxia (Figure 5H). Analysis of a cell energy phenotype assay revealed significantly less aerobic metabolism in PER2KD cells at baseline (Figure S8). Confirming these results, 5,5’,6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3’-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) assay showed a significant reduction of the membrane potential in PER2KD cells at normoxia and under hypoxia (Figure 5I; Figure S8).

    To explore PER2-dependent metabolism, we next used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry studies following the exposure of labeled glucose (13C-fructose) or labeled palmitic acid (13C-palmitic acid) to assess metabolic flux in PER2KD endothelial cells. Here we confirmed that PER2 is an essential regulator of glycolysis and oxidative metabolism under hypoxia (Figures 5J and 5K). Moreover, we found PER2 to be critical for the pentose phosphate pathway under normoxia or hypoxia, indicating that PER2KD cells are compromised in generating the reduction-oxidation reaction (redox) cofactor NADPH, which has a pivotal role for circadian timekeeping (Figure 5L) (Rey et al., 2016). Because PER2 has been shown to inhibit lipid metabolism via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) (Grimaldi et al., 2010), we also found altered fatty acid metabolism in PER2KD cells under hypoxia (Figure 5M). In silico analysis of our proteomics screen confirmed these findings and highlighted PER2 as a master regulator of endothelial energy metabolism (Figure S9).

    Because ATP has been implicated in endothelial barrier enhancement and tight junction functionality (Kolosova et al., 2005), we next evaluated endothelial barrier function of PER2KD HMECs and controls during a 24 h hypoxia time course. As shown in Figure 5N, PER2KD HMEC demonstrated increased cell permeability at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h of hypoxia when compared with Scr controls. Considering that previous studies had demonstrated that HIF-dependent regulation of claudin-1 is central to epithelial tight junction integrity (Saeedi et al., 2015), we also evaluated claudin-1 expression levels. As shown in Figure 5O, PER2KD cells had significantly lower HIF1A-regulated Claudin-1 mRNA levels. In addition, intense light preconditioning of wild-type mice resulted in significantly increased cardiac Claudin-1 mRNA levels at ZT3 (Figure 5P).

    Altogether, these data identify endothelial PER2 as a critical control point of energy homeostasis and endothelial barrier function via transcriptional regulation of HIF1A-dependent mitochondrial respiration and claudin-1.


    Figure 5. Endothelial PER2 Regulates Mitochondrial ATP Production and Barrier Function

    A Light-Sensing Human Endothelial Cell Line Recapitulates In Vivo Light Exposure

    As proof of concept that PER2 mimics HIF1A pathways under normoxia, we reiterated light sensing for PER2 overexpression on a cellular level by generating an HMEC-1 line overexpressing the human light-sensing photopigment melanopsin (OPN4), a retinal ganglion cell receptor responsible for circadian entrainment. Exposing the light-sensing HMEC-1 cultures to light resulted in a significant increase of cAMP, pCREB (phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein), PER2 mRNA, glycolytic capacity, and OCRs (Figures 6A–6H). Altogether, these studies recapitulate that normoxic PER2 overexpression can optimize cellular metabolism similar to what is seen under hypoxic conditions.
    In summary, our in vivo and in vitro studies on light-elicited pathways identified a light perception-dependent circadian entrainment mechanism through adenosine-cAMP and HIF1A transcriptional adaptation in a PER2-regulated manner. Furthermore, our studies discover that light or hypoxia elicits PER2 as a critical factor in maintaining endothelial barrier function during myocardial ischemia via transcriptional reprogramming (Figure 6I).

    Intense Light Enhances the Circadian Amplitude and PER2-Dependent Metabolism in Humans

    Next, we investigated whether intense light would have similar effects on healthy human volunteers. Based on strategies using intense light therapy (10,000 lux) to treat seasonal mood disorders in humans (Yorguner Kupeli et al., 2018), we adopted a similar protocol. We exposed healthy human volunteers to 30 min of intense light in the morning on 5 consecutive days and performed serial blood draws. Intense light therapy increased PER2 protein levels in human buccal or plasma samples in the morning (9 a.m.) or evening (9 p.m.), indicating an enhancement of the circadian amplitude in different tissues at the same time via light therapy (Figures 7A–7C; Figure S10). To test the efficacy of intense light therapy on the circadian system (Lewy et al., 1980), we determined melatonin plasma levels, which were significantly suppressed upon light treatment (Figures 7D and 7E). In addition, room light was less efficient than intense light therapy in suppressing melatonin (Figure 7D).
    Further analyses revealed that intense light therapy increased plasma phosphofructokinase at 9 a.m. or 9 p.m. (Figures 7F and 7G). Moreover, plasma triglycerides, surrogates for insulin sensitivity and carbohydrate metabolism (Ginsberg et al., 2005), significantly decreased upon light therapy (Figure 7H), indicating increased insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Targeted metabolomics from human plasma samples confirmed a strong effect of light therapy on metabolic pathways such as glycolysis or the TCA cycle (Figure 7I; Figure S10). We found significant decreases in pyruvate or succinate levels after 5 days of light therapy (Figures 7J and 7K). Together with increased plasma phosphofructokinase activity, this finding indicates that improved metabolic flux, possibly because of increased glycolysis, improved TCA cycle or mitochondrial function.

    Because sleep deprivation is directly associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and compromised glucose metabolism (Depner et al., 2014), we next determined how light therapy would affect human physiology in terms of sleep behavior. Using a validated accelerometer for actigraphy (Lee and Suen, 2017) (Actiwatch 2), we found fewer WASO (wake after sleep onset) episodes, overall improved sleep efficiency, increased day activity, and increases of the circadian amplitude (Figures 7L–7P; Figure S11).

    Altogether, our data suggest that intense light therapy, a mechanism of circadian amplitude enhancement, targets PER2-dependent metabolic pathways in humans that are similar to those seen in mice and may present a promising strategy for the treatment or prevention of low-oxygen conditions such as myocardial ischemia.


    Figure 7. Intense Light Enhances the Circadian Amplitude of PER2 and Activates PER2 Metabolism in Humans

    wyjebany zegar nadnerczy bardziej uderza w kobiety:

    Sex Differences in Adrenal Bmal1 Deletion-Induced Augmentation of Glucocorticoid Responses to Stress and ACTH in Mice

    Abstract
    The circadian glucocorticoid (GC) rhythm is dependent on a molecular clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and an adrenal clock that is synchronized by the SCN. To determine whether the adrenal clock modulates GC responses to stress, experiments used female and male Cyp11A1Cre/+:: Bmal1Fl/Fl KO (SCC-KO) mice, in which the core clock gene, Bmal1, is deleted in all steroidogenic tissues including the adrenal cortex. Following restraint stress, female and male SCC-KO mice demonstrate augmented plasma corticosterone, but not plasma ACTH. In contrast, following submaximal scruff stress, plasma corticosterone was elevated only in female SCC-KO mice. Adrenal sensitivity to ACTH was measured in vitro using acutely dispersed adrenocortical cells. Maximal corticosterone responses to ACTH were elevated in cells from female KO mice without affecting the EC50 response. Neither the maximum nor the EC50 response to ACTH was affected in male cells, indicating that female SCC-KO show a stronger adrenal phenotype. Parallel experiments were done using female Cyp11B2 (Aldosterone Synthase)Cre/+:: Bmal1Fl/Fl mice, adrenal cortex-specific Bmal1 null (Ad-KO) mice. Plasma corticosterone was increased in Ad-KO mice following restraint or scruff stress, and in vitro responses to ACTH were elevated in adrenal cells from Ad-KO mice, replicating data from female SCC-KO mice. Gene analysis showed increased expression of adrenal genes in female SCC-KO mice involved in cell cycle control, cell adhesion-extracellular matrix interaction and ligand receptor activity that could promote steroid production. These observations underscore a role for adrenal Bmal1 as an attenuator of steroid secretion that is most prominent in female mice.
    https://academic.oup.com/endo/advanc...-00357/5539983

    dodatkowo :
    Zona Reticularis
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 11-08-19 o 18:29
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  5. #815
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    w oczekiwaniu na pełną publikację

    12 August 2019
    Leptin and the endocrine control of energy balance



    Abstract
    The discovery of leptin changed the view of adipose tissue from that of a passive vessel that stores fat to that of a dynamic endocrine organ that actively regulates behaviour and metabolism. Secreted by adipose tissue, leptin functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop, acting primarily on neurons in the hypothalamus and regulating feeding and many other functions. The leptin endocrine system serves a critical evolutionary function by maintaining the relative constancy of adipose tissue mass, thereby protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation and infertility) or too obese (predation). In this Review, the biology of leptin is summarized, and a conceptual framework is established for studying the pathogenesis of obesity, which, analogously to diabetes, can result from either leptin hyposecretion or leptin resistance. Herein, these two states are distinguished with the terms ‘type 1 obesity’ and ‘type 2 obesity’: type 1 obesity describes a subset of obese individuals with low endogenous plasma leptin levels who respond to leptin therapy, whereas type 2 obesity describes most obese individuals, who are leptin resistant but might respond to leptin therapy in combination with other drugs, such as leptin sensitizers.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s42255-019-0095-y
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  6. #816
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    Oxytocin in metabolic homeostasis: implications for obesity and diabetes management



    Summary
    Oxytocin was once understood solely as a neuropeptide with a central role in social bonding, reproduction, parturition, lactation and appetite regulation. Recent evidence indicates that oxytocin enhances glucose uptake and lipid utilization in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, suggesting that dysfunction of the oxytocin system could underlie the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. Murine studies revealed that deficiencies in oxytocin signalling and oxytocin receptor expression lead to obesity despite normal food intake, motor activity and increased leptin levels. In addition, plasma oxytocin concentration is notably lower in obese individuals with diabetes, which may suggest an involvement of the oxytocin system in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease. More recently, small scale studies demonstrated that intranasal administration of oxytocin was associated with significant weight loss as well as improvements in insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β‐cell responsivity in human subjects. The multi‐pronged effects of oxytocin signalling on improving peripheral insulin sensitivity, pancreatic function and lipid homeostasis strongly suggest a role for this system as a therapeutic target in obesity and diabetes management. The complexity of obesity aetiology and the pathogenesis of obesity‐related metabolic complications underscore the need for a systems approach to better understand the role of oxytocin in metabolic function.
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...7#.XVIZBtD1r98

    Metabolically healthy obesity, vitamin D, and all-cause and cardiometabolic mortality risk in NHANES III

    Results
    Among 11,333 participants, a total of 2980 deaths (937 cardiometabolic death outcomes) occurred during a median follow-up of 19.1 years. In the absence of any metabolic abnormality, obesity (MHO) was not associated with a higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89 [95% CI, 0.52–1.51]) or cardiometabolic mortality (cause-specific HR, 1.21 [95% CI 0.33–4.46]). Similar results were obtained from competing risk analysis. No significant differences in average 25(OH)D levels were observed between MHO and non-MHO participants; however, there was a significant interaction between metabolic health phenotype and serum 25(OH)D in relation to cardiometabolic mortality such that levels of serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L were associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic mortality, particularly in participants within the normal-weight and obese BMI ranges.

    Conclusions
    Our results support the hypothesis that MHO phenotype is a benign health condition. Vitamin D deficiency may exacerbate the risk of cardiometabolic death outcomes associated with metabolic dysfunction in normal weight and obese individuals. Further research is warranted to validate our findings.
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...61561418300906

    przypominam co się dzieje jak UBV dotyka cholesterolu :



    Fast food availability linked with more heart attacks

    Areas with a higher number of fast food restaurants have more heartattacks, according to research presented at CSANZ 2019. The study also found that for every additional fast food ******, there were four additional heart attacks per 100,000 people each year.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ked-heart.html

    Mitochondrial function as a therapeutic target in heart failure






    Abstract
    Heart failure is a pressing worldwide public-health problem with millions of patients having worsening heart failure. Despite all the available therapies, the condition carries a very poor prognosis. Existing therapies provide symptomatic and clinical benefit, but do not fully address molecular abnormalities that occur in cardiomyocytes. This shortcoming is particularly important given that most patients with heart failure have viable dysfunctional myocardium, in which an improvement or normalization of function might be possible. Although the pathophysiology of heart failure is complex, mitochondrial dysfunction seems to be an important target for therapy to improve cardiac function directly. Mitochondrial abnormalities include impaired mitochondrial electron transport chain activity, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, shifted metabolic substrate utilization, aberrant mitochondrial dynamics, and altered ion homeostasis. In this Consensus Statement, insights into the mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure are presented, along with an overview of emerging treatments with the potential to improve the function of the failing heart by targeting mitochondria.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/nrcardio.2016.203

    The effect of being overweight and obese on cancer risk is at least double than previously thought

    The effect of being overweight and obese on the risk of cancer is at least twice as large as previously thought according to new findings by an international research team which included University of Bristol academics.

    The study published in the International Journal of Epidemiology was led by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and involved researchers from Bristol Medical School.
    The team conducted genetic analyses on eight common obesity-related cancer types. They compared the genetic Mendelian randomization estimates of the association between body mass index (BMI) and cancer risk with the estimates from classical cohort studies.
    Excess body fatness is already recognized as an important cause of cancer and has been estimated to account for six per cent of all cancers in high-income countries. According to the results of this new analysis, the proportion of cancers attributable to overweight and obesity is, in fact, substantially higher.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...reviously.html

    Gut-brain connection helps explain how overeating leads to obesity

    Eating extra servings typically shows up on the scale later, but how this happens has not been clear. A new study published today in the Journal of Clinical Investigation by a multi-institutional team led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine reveals a previously unknown gut-brain connection that helps explain how those extra servings lead to weight gain.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...g-obesity.html

    Reduced carbohydrate intake improves type 2 diabetics' ability to regulate blood sugar

    Patients with type 2 diabetes improve their ability to regulate blood sugar levels if they eat food with a reduced carbohydrate content and an increased share of protein and fat. This is shown by a recent study conducted at Bispebjerg Hospital in collaboration with, among other partners, Aarhus University and the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports at the University of Copenhagen. The findings are contrary to the conventional dietary recommendations for type 2 diabetics.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...ity-blood.html

    New study links high-fat diet and gut bacteria to insulin resistance

    Researchers have discovered how our choice of diet can weaken our gut immune system and lead to the development of diabetes.

    A growing body of research supports that during obesity, our immune system is often responding to components of bacteria that "leak" through the intestinal tissue and results in inflammation. In turn, inflammation can drive insulin resistance, which predisposes people to diabetes.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-bacteria.html

    The effects of exercise on your appetite

    Are you hungry after you exercise? That might not be a problem if you're at a healthy weight, but if you're trying to shed extra pounds, the calories you take in could replace the ones you just worked so hard to burn off.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-appetite.html

    Influence of Fish Oil-Derived n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Changes in Body Composition and Muscle Strength During Short-Term Weight Loss in Resistance-Trained Men

    Results:
    The decline in total body mass (FO = −3.0 ± 0.3 kg, CON = −2.6 ± 0.3 kg), fat free mass (FO = −1.4 ± 0.3 kg, CON = −1.2 ± 0.3 kg) and fat mass (FO = −1.4 ± 0.2 kg, CON = −1.3 ± 0.3 kg) following energy restriction was similar between groups (all p > 0.05; d: 0.16–0.39). Non-dominant leg extension 1 RM increased (6.1 ± 3.4%) following energy restriction in FO (p < 0.05, d = 0.29), with no changes observed in CON (p > 0.05, d = 0.05). Dominant leg extension 1 RM tended to increase following energy restriction in FO (p = 0.09, d = 0.29), with no changes in CON (p > 0.05, d = 0.06). Changes in leg press 1 RM, maximum voluntary contraction and muscular endurance following energy restriction were similar between groups (p > 0.05, d = 0.05).

    Conclusion: Any possible improvements in muscle strength during short-term weight loss with n-3PUFA supplementation are not related to the modulation of FFM in resistance-trained men.
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...019.00102/full
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  7. #817
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    Interconnection between circadian clocks and thyroid function

    Review Article
    Published: 12 August 2019
    Interconnection between circadian clocks and thyroid function
    Keisuke Ikegami, Samuel Refetoff, Eve Van Cauter & Takashi Yoshimura
    Nature Reviews Endocrinology (2019) | Download Citation

    Abstract
    Circadian rhythmicity is an approximately 24-h cell-autonomous period driven by transcription–translation feedback loops of specific genes, which are referred to as ‘circadian clock genes’. In mammals, the central circadian pacemaker, which is located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, controls peripheral circadian clocks. The circadian system regulates virtually all physiological processes, which are further modulated by changes in the external environment, such as light exposure and the timing of food intake. Chronic circadian disruption caused by shift work, travel across time zones or irregular sleep–wake cycles has long-term consequences for our health and is an important lifestyle factor that contributes to the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer. Although the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis is under the control of the circadian clock via the suprachiasmatic nucleus pacemaker, daily TSH secretion profiles are disrupted in some patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been recognized as a perturbation of the endocrine system and of cell cycle progression. Expression profiles of circadian clock genes are abnormal in well-differentiated thyroid cancer but not in the benign nodules or a healthy thyroid. Therefore, the characterization of the thyroid clock machinery might improve the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

    Key points

    - The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis is controlled by the central circadian pacemaker located in the
    suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    - Daily TSH secretion profiles are often disrupted in patients with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

    - Circadian dysfunction caused by shift work, travel across time zones or irregular sleep–wake cycles might
    be a novel lifestyle risk factor for disturbances in thyroid homeostasis in modern societies.

    - Disruption of circadian clock genes in vivo and in vitro disturbs cell cycle progression.

    - The circadian clock is thought to be disrupted in well-differentiated thyroid cancer.




    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-019-0237-z


    How our biological clocks are locked in sync

    Scientists from EPFL's Institute of Bioengineering have discovered that the circadian clock and the cell-cycle are, in fact, synchronized.

    Nothing in biology is static; everything is fluid, dynamic and ever-moving. Often, this movement occurs in repeating patterns—regular, measurable cycles that tick just like "clocks."
    https://phys.org/news/2019-08-biolog...ocks-sync.html

    Testosterone has a complicated relationship with moral reasoning, study finds

    Although some studies have linked high levels of testosterone to immoral behavior, a new study published in Nature Human Behaviour finds testosterone supplements actually made people more sensitive to moral norms, suggesting that testosterone's influence on behavior is more complicated than previously thought.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...hip-moral.html
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  8. #818
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    2019 Aug 15
    Endogenous circadian regulation of female reproductive hormones.


    CONTEXT:
    Studies suggest that female reproductive hormones are under circadian regulation, although methodologic differences have led to inconsistent findings.

    OBJECTIVE:
    To determine whether circulating levels of reproductive hormones exhibit circadian rhythms.

    DESIGN:
    Blood samples were collected across ∼90 consecutive hours, including 2 baseline days under a standard sleep-wake schedule, and ∼50 hours of extended wake under constant routine (CR) conditions.

    SETTING:
    Intensive Physiological Monitoring Unit, Brigham and Women's Hospital.

    PARTICIPANTS:
    Seventeen healthy pre-menopausal women (22.8 ± 2.6 years; 9 follicular; 8 luteal).

    INTERVENTIONS:
    50-h CR.

    MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES:

    plasma estradiol (E2)
    progesterone (P4
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
    follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG)
    melatonin and core
    body temperature
    RESULTS:

    All hormones exhibited significant 24-h rhythms under both standard sleep-wake and CR conditions during the follicular phase (p<0.05). In contrast, only FSH and SHBG were significantly rhythmic during the luteal phase. Rhythm acrophases and amplitudes were similar between standard sleep-wake and CR conditions. The acrophase occurred in the morning for P4, in the afternoon for FSH, LH and SHBG and during the night for E2.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our results confirm previous reports of ∼24-h rhythms in many female reproductive hormones in humans under ambulatory conditions but demonstrate that these hormones are under endogenous circadian regulation, defined as persisting in the absence of external time cues. These results may have important implications for the effects of circadian disruption on reproductive function.
    Studying a Possible Placebo Effect of an Imaginary Low-Calorie Diet

    In recent years the prevalence of obesity in developed countries has increased to the point that some authorities have coined the term “obesity epidemics.” Combining energy intake control measures (via diet) with protocols for increasing energy expenditure (predominantly via low to medium intensity aerobic exercise) proved to be the most effective approach in addressing this problem. In this experiment, we studied for a possible placebo effect of a weight loss program on changes in body mass and fat tissue in overweight or obese people. Fourteen healthy adults of both sexes aged between 19 and 45 with body mass index (BMI) > 27 participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups—one experimental and one control. The subjects in the experimental group followed an isocaloric diet but were told they were put on a calorie-deficient regimen. The subjects in the control group were aware they followed an energy-balanced diet. All participants were engaged in regular sessions of resistance exercise three times a week with total energy cost of approximately 750–900 kcal/week. We studied within-group differences of body mass, percentage of fat tissue, and BMI. All three variables reduced in value in the experimental group: body mass—9.25 ± 5.26 kg, percentage of fat tissue—3.4 ± 0.97%, and BMI—2.88 ± 1.50. No statistically significant within-group differences were measured in the control group. Despite some methodological biases of the study construct, in our opinion, a placebo effect could partially explain the changes in the experimental group.
    Introduction
    In recent years the prevalence of obesity in developed countries has increased to the point that some authorities talk about “obesity epidemics.” According to data in 2014 more than 1.9 billion adults worldwide were overweight, with over 600 million being obese (1, 2). Obesity is strongly linked with some diseases with high social impact such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (3–5). In addressing the problem, the effects of different weight-loss protocols have been extensively studied in recent years, most of them comprising interventions of hypocaloric diets and/or physical activity regimens (6–10). The most effective approach proved to be that of combining energy intake control measures (via diet) with protocols aimed at increasing energy expenditure (predominantly via low to medium intensity aerobic exercise) (11–17). Except the strictly mathematical part of the process of weight reduction (energy intake vs. energy expenditure), there are many other complex (including psychological) factors, which influence the outcomes of such interventions (18–20). The aim of this experiment was to distinguish between the metabolic and psychological/behavioral components of a weight loss intervention. Usually, in clinical studies, the combined effect of intervention plus placebo is evaluated. In our experiment, we tried to measure only a possible pure placebo effect. We used a resistance exercise protocol—an approach that is not very popular among researchers (21–23). It is easier to apply for overweight and obese sedentary people. While aerobic cyclic movements most often require the involvement of the whole body, which is hard and in some cases impossible to achieve in such subjects, resistance exercise allows for dosing and targeting efforts to particular parts of the body and are less energy efficient.

    Our hypothesis was that a nonrandom effect different than that of energy restriction and physical activity existed. More specifically, we tested for a pure placebo effect in a weight reduction therapy.


    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...019.00550/full
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 16-08-19 o 15:06
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  9. #819
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    Wtedy Bóg rzekł:
    Niechaj się stanie światłość!

    I stała się światłość.
    Shedding light on how the human eye perceives brightness



    Brightness perception can be explained by the summation of a non-linear luminance term and a linear melanopsin term, suggesting that melanopsin signal may express the absolute brightness level. Credit: Yokohama National University
    Japanese scientists are shedding new light on the importance of light-sensing cells in the retina that process visual information. The researchers isolated the functions of melanopsin cells and demonstrated their crucial role in the perception of the visual environment. This ushers in a new understanding of the biology of the eye and how visual information is processed.
    he findings could contribute to more effective therapies for complications that relate to the eye. They can also serve as the basis for developing lighting and display systems. The research was published in Scientific Reports on May 20th, 2019.

    The back of the human eye is lined with the retina, a layer of various types of cells called photoreceptors that respond to different amounts of light. The cells that process a lot of light are called cones and those that process lower levels of light are rods.

    Until recently, researchers thought that when light struck the retina, rods and cones were the only two kinds of cells that reacted. Recent discoveries have revealed an entirely new type of cells called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Unlike rods and cones, ipRGCs contain melanopsin, a photopigment that is sensitive to light. While it has been established that ipRGCs are involved in keeping the brain's internal clock in sync with changes in daylight, their importance in the detection of the amount of light had not yet been well understood.

    "Until now, the role of retinal melanopsin cells and how they contribute to the perception of the brightness of light have been unclear," said Katsunori Okajima, a professor at the Faculty of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University and one of the authors of the study.

    "We've found that melanopsin plays a crucial role on the human ability to see how well-lit the environment is. These findings are redefining the conventional system of light detection that so far has only taken into consideration two variables, namely brightness and the amount of incoming light. Our results suggest that brightness perception should rely on a third variable—the intensity of a stimulus that targets melanopsin."

    In the study, the authors showed how cones and melanopsin combine to allow the perception of brightness. In order to better assess the contribution of melanopsin to the detection of light, the melanopsin's signals were isolated from cones and rods. This separation allowed for more accurate observation of the melanopsin signal alone. Visual stimuli were carefully designed and positioned in order to specifically stimulate the light-sensitive chemical. Also, the researchers used tracking software to measure study participants' pupil diameters under each visual stimulus. This served as a way to determine the relationship between brightness perception and the actual visual stimulus intensity on the retina.

    The researchers were able to show that the varying brightness levels of an image that was perceived is a sum of the melanopsin response and the response that is generated by the cones. The former is a linear readout and the latter is not. The results also show that melanopsin is not a minor contributor in brightness perception. Rather, it is a crucial player in brightness perception.
    notabene czujnika ipRGCs:

    16 August 2019
    Blue Light disrupts the circadian rhythm and create damage in skin cells

    Abstract
    On a daily basis, the skin is exposed to many environmental stressors and insults. Over a 24‐hr natural cycle, during the day, the skin is focused on protection; while at night, the skin is focused on repairing damage that occurred during daytime and getting ready for the next morning. Circadian rhythm provides the precise timing mechanism for engaging those different pathways necessary to keep a healthy skin through clock genes that are present in all skin cells. The strongest clue for determining cellular functions timing is through sensing light or absence of light (darkness). Here, we asked the question if blue light could be a direct entrainment signal to skin cells and also disrupt their circadian rhythm at night. Through a reporter assay for per1 transcription, we demonstrate that blue light at 410nm decreases per1 transcription in keratinocytes, showing that epidermal skin cells can sense light directly and control their own clock gene expression. This triggers cells to “think” it is daytime even at nighttime. Elsewhere, we measured different skin cell damage due to blue light exposure (at different doses and times of exposure) versus cells that were kept in full darkness. We show an increase of ROS production, DNA damage and inflammatory mediators. These deleterious effects can potentially increase overall skin damage over time and ultimately accelerates aging.
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...1111/ics.12572


    How Acute Sleep Loss Affects the Endocrine System

    There is an increasing amount of research on how a lack of sleep impacts endocrine system from increasing obesity to contributing to diabetes. Johnathan Cedernaes, PhD, discusses his research on this subject and what it means for the sleepless patients as well as the clinicians who treat them.
    https://endocrinenews.endocrine.org/...ocrine-system/
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  10. #820
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    Impact of Circadian Disruption on Cardiovascular Function and Disease



    Highlights
    Adverse CV events, including myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, and stroke, show time-of-day variations. Underlying factors may include circadian system control over a plethora of markers associated with CV function.
    Our modern lifestyle, which includes shiftwork, jet lag, and disturbed sleep, has been associated with increased CV risk.
    Misalignment of the endogenous circadian timing system and behavioral/environmental cycles can adversely impact on CV function in both animal models and human studies. These mechanistic insights may help to explain why some aspects of our modern lifestyle can increase CV risk.
    Circadian disruption may play a role in the onset and development of CV disease, and treatments aimed at mitigating circadian disruption may diminish CV risk.
    The circadian system, that is ubiquitous across species, generates ~24 h rhythms in virtually all biological processes, and allows them to anticipate and adapt to the 24 h day/night cycle, thus ensuring optimal physiological function. Epidemiological studies show time-of-day variations in adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, and controlled laboratory studies demonstrate a circadian influence on key markers of CV function and risk. Furthermore, circadian misalignment, that is typically experienced by shift workers as well as by individuals who experience late eating, (social) jet lag, or circadian rhythm sleep–wake disturbances, increases CV risk factors. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which the circadian system regulates CV function, and which of these are affected by circadian disruption, may help to develop intervention strategies to mitigate CV risk.
    https://www.cell.com/trends/endocrin...31-6#secst0005

    The effectiveness of Tai Chi for short-term cognitive function improvement in the early stages of dementia in the elderly: a systematic literature review

    Results: A total of nine studies were reviewed including six randomized controlled trials, two non-randomized controlled trials, and one non-randomized prospective study. The studies suggest Tai Chi has impacts on global cognitive functions, visuospatial skills, semantic memory, verbal learning/memory, and self-perception of memory. The effects of Tai Chi on overall cognition for people with mild cognitive impairment are comparable to those in control groups which engaged in exercise.

    Conclusion: The studies reviewed affirm the potential of Tai Chi to improve short-term cognitive function in the elderly at the onset of dementia.: A total of nine studies were reviewed including six randomized controlled trials, two non-randomized controlled trials, and one non-randomized prospective study. The studies suggest Tai Chi has impacts on global cognitive functions, visuospatial skills, semantic memory, verbal learning/memory, and self-perception of memory. The effects of Tai Chi on overall cognition for people with mild cognitive impairment are comparable to those in control groups which engaged in exercise.

    Conclusion: The studies reviewed affirm the potential of Tai Chi to improve short-term cognitive function in the elderly at the onset of dementia.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6512568/



    Low levels of vitamin D in elementary school could spell trouble in adolescence

    Vitamin D deficiency in middle childhood could result in aggressive behavior as well as anxious and depressive moods during adolescence, according to a new University of Michigan study of school children in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Children with blood vitamin D levels suggestive of deficiency were almost twice as likely to develop externalizing behavior problems—aggressive and rule breaking behaviors—as reported by their parents, compared with children who had higher levels of the vitamin.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...olescence.html

    Green space is good for your mental health – the nearer the better

    Living within 300m of urban green space such as parks, nature reserves or play areas is associated with greater happiness, sense of worth, and life satisfaction—according to a new study by researchers at the University of Warwick, Newcastle University and the University of Sheffield.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...al-health.html

    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 20-08-19 o 17:33
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  11. #821
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    było 100x, lecz potwierdzenia nie było - do dziś.

    CUKIER NIGDY NIE BYŁ PROBLEMEM !!

    jakby ktoś nie rozumiał w skrócie: chodzi o antenę.

    AUGUST 21, 2019
    What drives inflammation in type 2 diabetes? Not glucose, says new research

    To date, the underlying causes of inflammation in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been poorly understood, which has hampered efforts to develop treatments to prevent complications from a disease that is the third leading cause of death in the United States.

    But new research at the University of Kentucky shows that changes to mitochondria—the powerhouse of cells—drive chronic inflammation from cells exposed to certain types of fats, shattering the prevailing assumption that glucose was the culprit.

    Chronic inflammation fuels many of the devastating complications of type 2 diabetes, including cardiovascular, kidney, and periodontal diseases, and is thus one of the key targets for therapy development. This new data may enlighten the conversation about tight glycemic control as the dominant treatment goal for people with diabetes.

    The research was recently published in Cell Metabolism by a team led by Barbara Nikolajczyk (UK Barnstable Brown Diabetes Center, Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences) and Douglas Lauffenberger (MIT Department of Biological Engineering).

    Nikolajczyk and Lauffenberger didn't set out to disprove the glucose-inflammation causation theory. Based on the importance of glycolysis—a 10-reaction sequence that produces energy—in other types of inflammation, the team hypothesized that immune cells from patients with type 2 diabetes would produce energy by burning glucose. "We were wrong," Nikolajczyk said.

    "We exclusively used immune cells from human subjects for all of the work, " Nikolajczyk explained, noting that humans, but not animal models of type 2 diabetes, have the specific pro-inflammatory T cell profile her team had identified in earlier research.

    The team was surprised to find that glycolysis wasn't driving chronic inflammation. Instead, a combination of defects in mitochondria and elevated fat derivatives were responsible.

    Nikolajczyk said she sees applications for this research in both basic and clinical sciences. She hopes to precisely define pro-inflammatory lipid types and explore associations between circulating and/or tissue-associated lipids and insulin resistance, one key feature of Type 2 diabetes. She is also interested in contributing to the development of new analytical approaches, spearheaded by Dr. Lauffenburger's team, that leverage ongoing lipid-related findings into a new understanding of pathology in type 2 diabetes.

    "Aggressive blood glucose control to lower the risk of diabetic complications has been the goal for most people with Type 2 Diabetes for decades," Nikolajczyk said. "Our data provide an explanation for why people with tight glucose control can nonetheless have disease progression."


    Highlights
    •Glycolysis in T cells/PBMCs from T2D subjects fails to stimulate T2D inflammation

    •T cells from T2D subjects have altered mitochondria

    •Altered import or oxidation of fatty acids activates inflammation in healthy cells

    •Mitochondrial changes combine with fatty acid metabolites to activate inflammation
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...778?via%3Dihub

    co zwiększa gęstość kości ?

    dla przypomniania:



    Family history of diabetes linked to increased bone mineral density

    The association between type 2 diabetes and increased fracture risk is well documented. However, little was known about the possible effect of family history of diabetes on bone mineral density (BMD). A study from China now confirms that a history of first-degree family members with diabetes is linked to increased BMD as well as to insulin resistance. Results are published online in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...nked-bone.html

    Study supports link between pollution and neuropsychiatric disorders

    A new study led by University of Chicago researchers suggests a significant link between exposure to environmental pollution and an increase in the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Based on analysis of large population data sets from both the United States and Denmark, the study, published in PLoS Biology, found poor air quality associated with increased rates of bipolar disorder and major depression in both countries.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...disorders.html

    Resistance Training Induces Antiatherogenic Effects on Metabolomic Pathways

    resistance training improves cardiometabolic risk factors & serum metabolome even in previously healthy young men. Thus, suggesting attenuated risk for future cardiovascular disease.

    https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/A...ogenic.10.aspx

    What to know about deep sleep

    Slow wave sleep, also called deep sleep, is an important stage in the sleep cycle that enables proper brain function and memory. While most adults are aware that they should aim for between 7 and 9 hours of sleep each night, the science of sleep is quite complex.
    https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/art...=meetedgar.com

    Capsaicin ameliorates the redox imbalance and glucose metabolism disorder in insulin-resistance model via circadian clock-related mechanisms.

    Circadian rhythms are closely associated with metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic disorders can be alleviated by many bioactive components through the controlling of clock gene expressions. Capsaicin has been demonstrated with many beneficial effects including anti-obesity and anti-insulin resistance activities, yet whether the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes are involved in the regulation of redox imbalance and glucose metabolism disorder by capsaicin remains unclear. In this work, the insulin resistance was induced in HepG2 cells by the treatment of glucosamine. Glucose uptake level, reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured with/without capsaicin co-treatment. The mRNA and protein expressions of core circadian clock genes were evaluated by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Our study revealed that circadian misalignment could be ameliorated by capsaicin. The glucosamine-induced cellular redox imbalance and glucose metabolism disorder were ameliorated by capsaicin in a Bmal1-dependent manner.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/....it&utm_medium



    a Ty na której obecnie żyjesz planecie?

    https://i.imgur.com/AUdX3Vi.mp4
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  12. #822
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    Brunatna tkanka tłuszczowa spełnia funkcję kluczowego metabolicznego filtra, który kontroluje usuwanie aminokwasów rozgałęzionych



    Spalająca tłuszcz brunatna tkanka tłuszczowa (ang. brown adipose tissue, BAT) jest uznawana za motor termogenezy. Okazuje się, że BAT może także spełniać funkcję filtra, który usuwa z krwi aminokwasy rozgałęzione (ang. branched-chain amino acid, BCAA).

    BCAA - leucyna, izoleucyna i walina - występują m.in. w jajkach, mięsie, rybach i mleku, a także w suplementach dla osób pracujących nad wzrostem masy mięśniowej.

    W normalnych stężeniach BCAA są niezbędne dla zdrowia, ale ich nadmiar powiązano z cukrzycą i otyłością. W ramach najnowszego badania zespół z Rutgers University odkrył, że osoby z niewielką ilością brunatnej tkanki tłuszczowej lub w ogóle jej pozbawione cechuje zmniejszona zdolność usuwania BCAA z krwi; zjawisko to może zaś prowadzić do rozwoju cukrzycy i otyłości.

    Autorom artykułu z pisma Nature udało się też rozwiązać zagadkę, w jaki sposób aminokwasy rozgałęzione dostają się do centrów energetycznych komórki - mitochondriów. Naukowcy stwierdzili, że nieznane dotąd białko SLC25A44 kontroluje tempo, z jakim BAT usuwa aminokwasy z krwi (aktywny katabolizm BCAA w BAT jest pośredniczony przez SLC25A44, które transportuje aminokwasy rozgałęzione do mitochondriów). Wszystko wskazuje więc na to, że BAT spełnia funkcję kluczowego metabolicznego filtra, który kontroluje usuwanie aminokwasów rozgałęzionych za pośrednictwem SLC25A44.

    Nasze badanie wyjaśnia paradoks, który polega na tym, że suplementy aminokwasów rozgałęzionych mogą przynieść korzyści osobom z aktywną brunatną tkanką tłuszczową (ludziom zdrowym), ale bywają szkodliwe dla innych, w tym dla seniorów czy pacjentów z otyłością lub cukrzycą - podkreśla prof. Labros S. Sidossis.

    W przyszłości akademicy chcą sprawdzić, czy wychwyt BCAA przez brunatną tkankę tłuszczową może być kontrolowany przez leki lub czynniki środowiskowe, np. ekspozycję na umiarkowany chłód czy spożycie pikantnych potraw.
    https://kopalniawiedzy.pl/brunatna-t...Sidossis,30601

    Hypothalamic dopamine signalling regulates brown fat thermogenesis

    Abstract
    Dopamine signalling is a crucial part of the brain reward system and can affect feeding behaviour. Dopamine receptors are also expressed in the hypothalamus, which is known to control energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. Here we show that pharmacological or chemogenetic stimulation of dopamine receptor 2 (D2R) expressing cells in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and the zona incerta (ZI) decreases body weight and stimulates brown fat activity in rodents in a feeding-independent manner. LHA/ZI D2R stimulation requires an intact sympathetic nervous system and orexin system to exert its action and involves inhibition of PI3K in the LHA/ZI. We further demonstrate that, as early as 3 months after the onset of treatment, patients treated with the D2R agonist cabergoline experience an increase in energy expenditure that persists for one year, leading to total body weight and fat loss through a prolactin-independent mechanism. Our results may provide a mechanistic explanation for how clinically used D2R agonists act in the central nervous system to regulate energy balance.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s42255-019-0099-7

    dla przypomnienia jak to jest :



    w poszukiwaniu nieuchwytnych czynników środowiskowych, które mogą zakłócać funkcję genu.

    How our genes and environment influence BMI and height

    Environmental conditions influence our body mass index (BMI) by increasing or decreasing the effect of inherited genetic variations, University of Queensland researchers have discovered.

    A team led by Huanwei Wang and Professor Jian Yang from UQ's Institute for Molecular Bioscience found the opposite for human height—that the genetic effects that influence it are very stable from one environment to another.
    The discovery could help determine whether, for any particular traits, the effect of a genetic variation is influenced by environmental factors.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...mi-height.html

    niebieski jest wskazówką zegara:

    The inner clock - blue light sets the human rhythm.

    Abstract
    Visible light synchronizes the human biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus to the solar 24-hour cycle. Short wavelengths, perceived as blue color, are the strongest synchronizing agent for the circadian system that keeps most biological and psychological rhythms internally synchronized. Circadian rhythm is important for optimum function of organisms and circadian sleep-wake disruptions or chronic misalignment often may lead to psychiatric and neurodegenerative illness. The beneficial effect on circadian synchronization, sleep quality, mood, and cognitive performance depends not only on the light spectral composition but also on the timing of exposure and its intensity. Exposure to blue light during the day is important to suppress melatonin secretion, the hormone that is produced by the pineal gland and plays crucial role in circadian rhythm entrainment. While the exposure to blue is important for keeping organism's wellbeing, alertness, and cognitive performance during the day, chronic exposure to low-intensity blue light directly before bed-time, may have serious implications on sleep quality, circadian phase and cycle durations. This rises inevitably the need for solutions to improve wellbeing, alertness and cognitive performance in today's modern society where exposure to blue light emitting devices is ever increasing. This article is protected by copyright.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/....it&utm_medium

    jak działa Metformin:

    Understanding the glucoregulatory mechanisms of metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus



    Abstract
    Despite its position as the first-line drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the mechanisms underlying the plasma glucose level-lowering effects of metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide) still remain incompletely understood. Metformin is thought to exert its primary antidiabetic action through the suppression of hepatic glucose production. In addition, the discovery that metformin inhibits the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex 1 has placed energy metabolism and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at the centre of its proposed mechanism of action. However, the role of AMPK has been challenged and might only account for indirect changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity. Various mechanisms involving alterations in cellular energy charge, AMP-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase or fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 1 and modulation of the cellular redox state through direct inhibition of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase have been proposed for the acute inhibition of gluconeogenesis by metformin. Emerging evidence suggests that metformin could improve obesity-induced meta-inflammation via direct and indirect effects on tissue-resident immune cells in metabolic organs (that is, adipose tissue, the gastrointestinal tract and the liver). Furthermore, the gastrointestinal tract also has a major role in metformin action through modulation of glucose-lowering hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 and the intestinal bile acid pool and alterations in gut microbiota composition.

    Key points
    Metformin is the first-line drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, with an excellent safety profile, high efficacy in glycaemic control and clear but incompletely understood cardioprotective benefits.

    The pleiotropic properties of metformin suggest that the drug acts on multiple tissues through various underlying mechanisms rather than on a single organ via a unifying mode of action.

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex 1 is targeted by metformin and its inhibition is involved in AMP-activated protein kinase-independent regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by triggering alterations in cellular energy charge and redox state.

    Metformin might contribute to improvements in obesity-associated meta-inflammation and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity through direct and indirect effects on various resident immune cells in metabolic organs.

    The gastrointestinal tract has an important role in the action of metformin, which modulates bile acid recirculation and enhances the secretion of the glucose-lowering gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1.

    The gut microbiota is a novel target in the mechanisms of metformin action and is involved in both the therapeutic and adverse effects of the drug.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-019-0242-2

    Paradox of hypercholesterolaemia in highly trained, keto-adapted athletes

    Results
    Plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) cholesterol were all significantly greater (p<0.000) in the LC group (65%, 83% and 60%, respectively). There were also significant differences in lipoprotein particle distribution as evidenced by a greater size and concentration of large HDL and LDL particles, and total LDL particle concentration was significantly greater in the LC group, but they had significantly fewer small LDL particles.

    Conclusion Ultra-endurance athletes habitually consuming a very low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet for over a year showed unique cholesterol profiles characterised by consistently higher plasma LDL-C and HDL-C, less small LDL particles, and lipoprotein profiles consistent with higher insulin sensitivity. There may be a functional purpose to the expansion of the circulating cholesterol pool to meet the heightened demand for lipid transport in highly trained, keto-adapted athletes.
    https://bmjopensem.bmj.com/content/4/1/e000429
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; 23-08-19 o 10:24
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  13. #823
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    May 2014
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    AUGUST 28, 2019
    Study links body clock to obesity and diabetes



    Does skipping a meal at particular times of day reduce your chances of developing obesity or diabetes?
    Are the street lights outside making you fat?

    Research out of the University of Otago has found connections linking diabetes and obesity to circadian rhythm, often referred to as the body clock.

    During the study the researchers examined the effects of disruption to the circadian rhythm of mice in a controlled laboratory setting. They found that repeated jetlag led to weight gain and severe diabetes symptoms.
    We need to think about what disrupts our body clock. Anything that interferes with it, such as travel jetlag, social jetlag, shift work, bright-light exposure at the wrong time of day, can be detrimental for human health," says Associate Professor Alexander Tups of the University of Otago's Neuroendocrinology and Brain Health Research Centre.


    "Very bright street lights disrupt melatonin, which is the hormone that regulates the circadian rhythm. This disruption can lead to obesity and diabetes if our studies can be translated to humans, but there is also accumulating evidence that disrupted melatonin secretion leads to cancer," Associate Professor Tups adds.

    He hopes these findings will prompt experiments with humans to investigate which intensity of artificial light suppresses melatonin, and thereby would be detrimental for human health. This would lead to more informed decisions in choosing artificial light sources for their particular purpose.

    A separate study also examined how the body clock influences the ability to process fatty food, and found supportive evidence for the popular diet technique of skipping a meal.

    "Essentially, it matters what time you eat. Our bodies produce hormones which appear to work better at fighting off fatty foods consumed at particular times of day. If we avoid eating at times when these hormones are not working, we can reduce the detrimental effects of a fatty diet," Dr. Tups says.


    The crucial hormone in regard to eating time is leptin; a body-weight regulatory hormone. Detrimental effects of high-fat feeding are exacerbated during leptin resistant times of the day.

    The researchers discovered that contrary to current thinking, resistance against leptin is not universal throughout the day in obese mice.

    "There are times when the mice were still sensitive to the hormone—so if the eating pattern is restricted to this time period the beneficial effects can be maximized," Dr. Tups says.

    In mice it was particularly detrimental for metabolic health when access to fatty food was restricted to the late night and early morning, times when the animal was resistant to leptin. For mice, this would be dinner time, as they are active during the night and sleep during the day.

    Because of this difference the Associate Professor Tups cannot yet give a clear recommendation which meal to skip to lose body weight.

    "However, if the results were directly translatable to humans it would be most likely dinner. It needs to be in alignment with our body clock and would also depend on our individual chronotype, that means whether a person is a lark or an owl may make a difference about choosing which meal to skip," he adds.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-diabetes.html

    Intermittent fasting: 'Fast and feast' diet works for weight loss

    Tired of that spare tire?
    Low-calorie diets work, but can be difficult to follow. A much simpler approach to losing weight might be to just stop eating every other day.

    It's called alternate-day fasting (ADF). As the name implies, you starve yourself by fasting one day and then you feast the next, and then repeat that pattern again and again.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...east-diet.html

    Excess body fat increases the risk of depression

    Carrying ten kilograms of excess body fat increases the risk of depression by seventeen per cent. The more fat, the greater the probability of developing depression. This is the main conclusion of a new study carried out by researchers from Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...epression.html


    Researchers discover that fasting reduces inflammation and improves chronic inflammatory diseases

    Fasting regimens have gained public and scientific interest in recent years, but fasting shouldn't be dismissed as a fad. In a study published in Cell, Mount Sinai researchers found that fasting reduces inflammation and improves chronic inflammatory diseases without affecting the immune system's response to acute infections.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...-diseases.html


    Alternate Day Fasting Improves Physiological and Molecular Markers of Aging in Healthy, Non-obese Humans



    Highlights
    •For healthy, non-obese adults, ADF is safe to practice for several months
    •4-week ADF decreases the body weight by 4.5% and improves the fat-to-lean ratio
    •Cardiovascular parameters and the CVD risk are improved upon ADF
    •ADF reduces T3 and periodically depletes amino acids, while increasing PUFAs
    https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism...k#.XWV8lMLKuJl

    Regulation of mitochondrial activity controls the duration of skeletal muscle regeneration in response to injury

    Abstract
    Thyroid hormone is a major regulator of skeletal muscle development and repair, and also a key regulator of mitochondrial activity. We have previously identified a 43 kDa truncated form of the nuclear T3 receptor TRα1 (p43) which stimulates mitochondrial activity and regulates skeletal muscle features. However, its role in skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be addressed. To this end, we performed acute muscle injury induced by cardiotoxin in mouse tibialis in two mouse models where p43 is overexpressed in or depleted from skeletal muscle. The measurement of muscle fiber size distribution at different time point (up to 70 days) upon injury lead us to unravel requirement of the p43 signaling pathway for satellite cells dependent muscle regeneration; strongly delayed in the absence of p43; whereas the overexpression of the receptor enhances of the regeneration process. In addition, we found that satellite cells derived from p43-Tg mice display higher proliferation rates when cultured in vitro when compared to control myoblasts, whereas p43−/− satellites shows reduced proliferation capacity. These finding strongly support that p43 plays an important role in vivo by controling the duration of skeletal muscle regeneration after acute injury, possibly through the regulation of mitochondrial activity and myoblasts proliferation.
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-48703-2

    Healthy foods more important than type of diet to reduce heart disease risk

    Everyone knows that achieving or maintaining a healthy body weight is one key to preventing cardiovascular disease. But even experts don't agree on the best way to achieve that goal, with some recommending eliminating carbohydrates and others emphasizing reducing fats to lose weight. Few studies have investigated the effects of these specific macronutrients on cardiovascular health.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...iet-heart.html

    After 10-year search, scientists find second 'short sleep' gene

    After a decade of searching, the UC San Francisco scientists who identified the only human gene known to promote "natural short sleep"—lifelong, nightly sleep that lasts just four to six hours yet leaves individuals feeling fully rested—have discovered a second.

    "Before we identified the first short-sleep gene, people really weren't thinking about sleep duration in genetic terms," said Ying-Hui Fu, Ph.D., professor of neurology and a member of the UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences. Fu led the research teams that discovered both short sleep genes, the newest of which is described in a paper published August 28, 2019 in the journal Neuron.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-08-gene-linked.html


    ciekawa wersja zachodu sońca:



    Tesla jest znakiem czasów:
    https://nypost.com/video/tesla-drive...f-driving-car/
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  14. #824
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    May 2014
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    2 082
    suplementacja UVB, kończy się czasem tragicznie.

    Szpikował się witaminą D, uszkodził nerki, trafił do szpitala w Rzeszowie.

    Na nefrologię w Klinicznym Szpitalu Wojewódzkim nr 1 w Rzeszowie trafił pacjent, który szpikował się witaminą D. Miała mu rzekomo pomóc na układ krążenia. Doszło do uszkodzenia nerek. To nie jedyny taki przypadek w ostatnim czasie.

    Ten mężczyzna przyjmował dziennie aż 20 jednostek witaminy D, bo po mniejszych dawkach podobno lepiej się czuł. Sprowadzał ją sobie z Zachodu, bo u nas nie ma takich dawek. Tłumaczył, że miało to wzmocnić jego serce i układ krążenia
    https://plus.nowiny24.pl/szpikowal-s...r/c14-14368513

    AUGUST 29, 2019
    Study links low vitamin D levels in young kids to aggression in adolescents

    How many times did your parents make you go outside and play? You should call and thank them.

    That's because you likely absorbed much-needed vitamin D, which might be why you're such a happy person today.

    The most natural way to get vitamin D is by exposing your bare skin to sunlight (ultraviolet B rays). This can happen very quickly, particularly in the summer, vitamindcouncil.org states on its website.
    https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-...oung-kids.html

    The roles of gut microbiota and circadian rhythm in the cardiovascular protective effects of polyphenols

    Abstract
    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants that have been widely interested in for their health benefits as antioxidant. In the last decade, a large number of clinical trials and epidemiological studies have shown that long‐term consumption of polyphenol‐rich diet protects against chronic diseases such as cancers and cardiovascular diseases. Current cardiovascular researches have also suggested an important role of gut microbiota and circadian rhythm in the pathogenesis metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. It is known that polyphenols can modulate the composition of core gut microbiota and interact with circadian clock. In the present article, we summarize recent findings, review the molecular mechanisms and the potential of polyphenol as a dietary supplement for regulating gut microbiota and circadian rhythm for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, and discuss future research directions.
    https://t.co/IcSNixa37I?amp=1
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  15. #825
    Sztywny Pal Azji
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    May 2014
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    2 082
    Sleep quality and insulin resistance in adolescent subjects with different circadian preference: A cross-sectional study.

    BACKGROUND:
    Studies have shown that alterations in the sleep cycle can predispose to several disorders. Most of the previous studies were done on the adults. Hence, the aim of the study was to see the effect of circadian disruption on the health of adolescent population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS:
    In this cross-sectional study, 203 subjects were enrolled. Study subjects were divided into three groups: definite evening chronotype, intermediate chronotype, and definite morning chronotype. Sleep quality was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Daytime sleepiness and chronotype were measured by Epworth Sleepiness Score and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire Self-Assessment version, respectively. Two hours postprandial glucose was measured after oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin were measured. Homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Data were summarized as mean ± standard deviation. Crude odds ratios and Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient of metabolic parameters with poor sleep were calculated.

    RESULTS:
    Statistically significant difference was found in the mean value of poor sleep quality, 2 h postprandial blood glucose level, and insulin resistance among subjects of three groups. Subjects of evening chronotype have more significant positive correlation of 2 h postprandial blood glucose level and HOMA-IR value with poor sleep quality when compared with subjects of intermediate and morning chronotypes.

    CONCLUSION:
    Subjects with evening chronotype are more prone for development of metabolic syndrome compared with subjects of intermediate and morning chronotypes if proper health policies are not adopted for adolescents.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/...?dopt=Abstract

    Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Acute Skeletal Muscle Recovery after Exercise.

    PURPOSE:
    Sleep is considered essential for muscle recovery, mainly due to its effect on hormone secretion. Total sleep deprivation or restriction is known to alter not only blood hormones but also cytokines that might be related to skeletal muscle recovery. This study aimed to evaluate whether total sleep deprivation after eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD) modifies the profiles of blood hormones and cytokines.

    METHODS:
    In two separate conditions, with a crossover and randomized model, ten men (aged = 24.5 ± 2.9 y; body mass index = 22.7 ± 2.3 kg / m) performed a unilateral EEIMD protocol that comprised 240 eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles using an isokinetic dynamometer. In one condition, a 'muscle damage' protocol was followed by 48 h of total sleep deprivation and 12 h of normal sleep (DEPRIVATION). In the other condition, the same muscle damage protocol was conducted, followed by three nights of regular sleep (SLEEP). Isometric muscle voluntary contraction (MVC) tests and blood samples were collected serially throughout the protocol and analyzed for creatine kinase (CK), free and total testosterone, IGF-1, cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, receptor antagonist of IL-1 and IL-10.

    RESULTS:
    MVC and serum CK increased equally over the study period in both conditions. From the cytokines evaluated, only IL-6 increased in DEPRIVATION. No differences were detected in testosterone levels between conditions, but IGF-1, cortisol and cortisol to total testosterone ratio were higher in DEPRIVATION.

    CONCLUSIONS:
    Total sleep deprivation after EEIMD does not delay muscle strength recovery but modifies inflammatory and hormonal responses.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31469710

    Branched-chain amino acids do not improve muscle recovery from resistance exercise in untrained young adults.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle recovery from resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adults. Twenty-four young adults (24.0 ± 4.3 years old) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups (n = 12 per group): a placebo-supplement group or a BCAA-supplement group. The groups were supplemented for a period of 5 days. On day 1 and 3, both groups underwent a RE session involving two lower body exercises (hack squat and leg press) and then were evaluated for muscle recovery on the 3 subsequent moments after the RE session [30 min (day 3), 24 h (day 4), and 48 h (day 5)]. The following indicators of muscle recovery were assessed: number of repetitions, rating of perceived exertion in the last RE session, muscle soreness and countermovement jump (CMJ) during recovery period (30 min, 24 h, and 48 h after RE session). Number of repetitions remained unchanged over time (time, P > 0.05), while the rating of perceived exertion increased (time, P < 0.05) over 3 sets, with no difference between groups (group × time, P > 0.05). Muscle soreness increased (time, P < 0.05) and jumping weight decreased (time, P < 0.05) at 30 min post-exercise and then progressively returned to baseline at 24 and 48 h post-exercise, with no difference between groups (group × time, P > 0.05). The results indicate that BCAA supplementation does not improve muscle recovery from RE in untrained young adults.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31468208

    Cysteine Switches and the Regulation of Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and ROS Production.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31452142

    Strength and Hypertrophy Adaptations Between Low- vs. High-Load Resistance Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28834797


    było, ale teraz ładny screen

    4 wymiar medycyny - czas.

    correlation doesn't imply causation

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