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Wątek: NATURALNE sposoby optymalizacji CIAŁA i DUSZY.

  1. #616
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 318
    Consistent Meal Times Improve Performance on a Daily Time-Place Learning Task.

    The ability of an animal to learn the spatiotemporal variability of stimuli is known as time-place learning (TPL). The present study investigated the role of the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) in TPL. Rats were trained in an operant conditioning chamber which contained two levers that distributed a food reward, such that one lever provided food rewards in morning sessions, while the other lever provided food rewards in afternoon sessions. We expected that having access to the FEO would provide rats with more accurate depictions of time of day, leading to better performance. Rats received either one meal per day (1 M group), which permitted FEO access, or many meals per day (MM group), which prevented FEO access. As predicted, 1 M rats had a significantly higher percentage of correct first presses than MM rats. Once rats successfully learned the task, probe tests were conducted to determine the timing strategy used. Of the 10 rats that successfully learned the time-place discrimination, six used a circadian timing strategy. Future research should determine whether the advantage in learning seen in the rats having access to the FEO is specific to the daily TPL task used in this study, or to learning and memory tasks more generally.
    2019 Jan 21.
    Circadian genes and risk of prostate cancer: findings from the EPICAP study.

    Circadian rhythms regulate several physiological functions and genes controlling the circadian rhythm were found to regulate cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated the role of those circadian genes in prostate cancer occurrence. We aim to investigate the relationship between circadian genes polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk based on data from the EPICAP study, a population-based case-control study including 1515 men (732 cases / 783 controls) with genotyped data. Odds Ratios (ORs) for association between prostate cancer and circadian gene variants were estimated for each of the 872 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 31 circadian clock genes. We also used a gene-based and pathway-based approach with a focus on the pathway including 9 core circadian genes. Separate analyses were conducted by prostate cancer aggressiveness. The core-circadian pathway (P=0.0006) was significantly associated to prostate cancer, for either low (P=0.002) or high (P=0.01) grade tumour. At the gene level, we observed significant associations between all prostate cancer and NPAS2 and PER1 after correcting for multiple testing, while only RORA was significant for aggressive tumors. At the SNP-level, no significant association was observed. Our findings provide additional evidence of a potential link between genetic variants in circadian genes and prostate cancer risk. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings and to better understand the biological pathways involved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Diet low in added sugars significantly improves fatty liver disease in children

    A randomized clinical study of adolescent boys with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) found that a diet low in free sugars (those sugars added to foods and beverages and occurring naturally in fruit juices) resulted in significant improvement in NAFLD compared to a usual diet.

    stępiona sygnalizacja receptorów insuliny (neuronalna) upośledza Lipogenezę De Novo (LDN) w tkance tłuszczowej

    Brain Insulin Controls Adipose Tissue Lipolysis and Lipogenesis

    White adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Unrestrained WAT lipolysis results in increased fatty acid release, leading to insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, while impaired de novo lipogenesis in WAT decreases the synthesis of insulin-sensitizing fatty acid species like palmitoleate. Here, we show that insulin infused into the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) of Sprague-Dawley rats increases WAT lipogenic protein expression, inactivates hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl), and suppresses lipolysis. Conversely, mice that lack the neuronal insulin receptor exhibit unrestrained lipolysis and decreased de novo lipogenesis in WAT. Thus, brain and, in particular, hypothalamic insulin action play a pivotal role in WAT functionality.
    Insulin signaling suppresses lipolysis by reducing sympathetic output to fat tissue
    Neuronal insulin signaling induces de novo lipogenesis in adipose tissue
    Impairment of hypothalamic insulin signaling unrestrains adipose tissue lipolysis
    Our studies establish that neuronal and in particular hypothalamic insulin action is a critical regulator of WAT metabolism.

    Researchers are discovering fascinating things about the links between sleep, how we remember things
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; Wczoraj o 20:10
    correlation doesn't imply causation

  2. #617
    Sztywny Pal Azji
    May 2014
    1 318
    JANUARY 23, 2019
    Cancer has a biological clock and this drug may keep it from ticking

    A new drug shows potential to halt cancer cells' growth by stunting the cells' biological clock.

    The findings from scientists at the USC Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience and Nagoya University's Institute of Transformative BioMolecules (ITbM) advance a burgeoning area of research: turning the body's circadian rhythms against cancer.

    Their study, conducted on human kidney cancer cells and on acute myeloid leukemia in mice, was published Jan. 23 in the journal Science Advances

    Scientists know that disrupting sleep and other elements of humans' circadian rhythm can harm health. The same is true for the circadian clock of cells themselves. If researchers could disturb the circadian clock of cancer cells, they theorize, they could potentially hurt or kill those cells.

    The scientists found that a molecule named GO289 targets an enzyme that controls the cell's circadian rhythm. This drug-protein interaction then disrupts the functions of four other proteins that are important for cell growth and survival.

    In effect, GO289 can jam the cogs of the cell's circadian clock, slowing its cycles. And it can do so with little impact to healthy cells.

    "In some cancers, the disease takes over the circadian clock mechanism and uses it for the evil purpose of helping itself grow," said Steve Kay, director of convergent biosciences at the USC Michelson Center and USC Provost Professor of Neurology, Biomedical Engineering and Biological Sciences. "With GO289, we can interfere with those processes and stop the cancer from growing."

    Kay is among several scientists from USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, USC Viterbi School of Engineering and Keck School of Medicine at USC who are collaborating across multiple disciplines to find new solutions for treating cancer, neurological disease and cardiovascular disease.

    Finding the right candidate

    On its initial interactions with human bone cancer cells, GO289 appeared to slow the tumors' circadian clock as it targeted an enzyme, named CK2.

    To see if GO289 consistently hindered other cancers in the same way, the scientists then tested it on human kidney cancer cells and on mice with acute myeloid leukemia. They found that GO289 specifically affected cancer cell metabolism and other circadian-related functions that normally would enable the cancer to grow and spread.

    Kay is optimistic about the findings. "This could become an effective new weapon that kills cancer," he said.
    JANUARY 23, 2019
    Study supports physical activity as a preventive strategy against depression

    While many studies have found associations between greater levels of physical activity and lower rates of depression, a key question has remained—does physical activity actually reduce the risk of depression or does depression lead to reduced physical activity? Now a team led by Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators has used a novel research method to strongly support physical activity as a preventive measure for depression. Their report is being published online in JAMA Psychiatry.

    "Using genetic data, we found evidence that higher levels of physical activity may causally reduce risk for depression," says Karmel Choi, Ph.D., of the Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit in the MGH Center for Genomic Medicine, lead author of the report. "Knowing whether an associated factor actually causes an outcome is important, because we want to invest in preventive strategies that really work."

    The technique used in the study—Mendelian randomization—uses gene variants to study the effects of a non-genetic factor in a different approach from that of traditional research. The gene variants are studied as a type of natural experiment in which people show higher or lower average levels of a factor like physical activity that are related to gene variants they have inherited. Because genetic variants are inherited in a relatively random fashion, they can serve as less biased proxies to estimate the true relationship between physical activity and depression. This approach can also determine which of two traits is actually causative—if levels of trait A affects the levels of trait B but levels of trait B do not affect levels of trait A, that implies that trait A leads to trait B, but not vice versa.

    For this study, the researchers identified gene variants from the results of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that were conducted for physical activity in the U.K. Biobank and for depression by a global research consortium. GWAS results for physical activity were available for two different measures: one based on 377,000 participants' self-reports of physical activity and the other based on readings of motion-detecting sensors called accelerometers, worn on the wrists of more than 91,000 participants. The GWAS for depression was based on data from more than 143,000 participants with and without this condition.

    The results of the Mendelian randomization study indicated that accelerometer-based physical activity, but not self-reported activity, does appear to protect against the risk of depression. The differences between the two methods of measuring physical activity could result not only from inaccuracies in participants' memories or desire to present themselves in a positive way but also from the fact that objective readings capture things other than planned exercise—walking to work, climbing the stairs, mowing the lawn—that participants may not recognize as physical activity. The analysis revealed no causal relationship in the other direction, between depression and physical activity.

    "On average," Choi says, "doing more physical activity appears to protect against developing depression. Any activity appears to be better than none; our rough calculations suggest that replacing sitting with 15 minutes of a heart-pumping activity like running, or with an hour of moderately vigorous activity, is enough to produce the average increase in accelerometer data that was linked to a lower depression risk."

    Senior author Jordan Smoller, MD, ScD, director of the Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit and a professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, says, "While gene variants like those used in this study do not determine a person's behaviors or outcomes, their average associations with certain traits in these very large studies can help us look at a question such as whether physical activity—or the tendency to engage in more physical activity—has a likely causal effect on depression. And the answers to those questions could help researchers design large-scale clinical trials."

    Choi adds, "And of course it's one thing to know that physical activity could be beneficial for preventing depression; it's another to actually get people to be physically active. More work needs to be done to figure out how best to tailor recommendations to different kinds of people with different risk profiles. We currently are looking at whether and how much physical activity can benefit different at-risk groups, such as people who are genetically vulnerable to depression or those going through stressful situations and hope to develop a better understanding of physical activity to promote resilience to depression."
    We’ve discovered a new type of blood vessel in our bones

    It’s time to rewrite the anatomy books: a new kind of blood vessel has been discovered in our bones.
    Ostatnio edytowane przez htw ; Wczoraj o 20:40
    correlation doesn't imply causation

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